Water use efficiency, growth and anatomic-physiological parameters of Mediterranean xerophytes as affected by substrate and irrigation on a green roof


  • Lamprini TASSOULA Agricultural University of Athens, School of Plant Sciences, Department of Crop Science, Laboratory of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens (GR)
  • Maria PAPAFOTIOU Agricultural University of Athens, School of Plant Sciences, Department of Crop Science, Laboratory of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens (GR)
  • Georgios LIAKOPOULOS Agricultural University of Athens, School of Plant Sciences, Department of Crop Science, Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Morphology, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens (GR)
  • George KARGAS Agricultural University of Athens, School of Environment and Agricultural Engineering, Department of Natural Resources Development and Agricultural Engineering, Laboratory of Agricultural Hydraulics, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens (GR)




Atriplex halimus, Convolvulus cneorum, Lomelosia cretica, medicinal plants, Origanum dictamnus, Sideritis athoa


The water use efficiency, growth and anatomic-physiological parameters of Mediterranean medicinal xerophytes on a green roof was investigated, under the effect of water stress and different types of substrate. Rooted cuttings of Convolvulus cneorum, Origanum dictamnus, Sideritis athoa, Atriplex halimus and Lomelosia cretica were planted on a roof in Athens, Greece. Two substrate types, 10 cm deep, were used, i.e. grape marc compost: perlite: soil: pumice (3:3:2:2, v/v) and a lighter one, i.e. grape marc compost: perlite: pumice (3:3:4, v/v). Two irrigation frequencies were applied during the dry period (summer), normal and sparse, when substrate moisture was 17-20% and 5-11%, respectively. Water use efficiency was increased by sparse irrigation in A. halimus and L. cretica and by soil substrate in C. cneorum. Sparse irrigation reduced dry weight in O. dictamnus, S. athoa and L. cretica and in A. halimus in combination with soilless substrate. It increased leaf thickness in all species and reduced Chlολ in all species, other than S. athoa, while in C. cneorum, O. dictamnus and L. cretica this was evident only in the presence of soil in the substrate. In summer, one d before irrigation, stomatal resistance (Rleaf) was increased and maximum quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSIIο) decreased indicating water limitation, while both parameters were restored to normal levels one d after irrigation indicating that both can serve as sensitive indicators of the onset of water stress. ΦPSIIο values, never fell to critical levels, excluding irreversible damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. Therefore, all five plant species are recommended for use on extensive green roofs in semi-arid areas.


Abass F, Ismail LH, Wahab IA, Elgadi AA (2020). A review of green roof: definition, history, evolution and functions. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 713:012048. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/713/1/012048

Aligiannis N, Kalpoutzakis E, Chinou IB, Mitakou S, Gikas E, Tsarbopoulos A (2001). Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of five taxa of Sideritis from Greece. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 49(2):81-815. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf001018w

Andric I, Kamal A, Al-Ghamdi SG (2020). Efficiency of green roofs and green walls as climate change mitigation measures in extremely hot and dry climate: Case study of Qatar. Energy Reports 6:2476-2489. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2020.09.006

Beattie DJ, Berghage RD (2004). Design criteria for a green roof medium Proc. 2nd Intl. Green Roof Conf.: Greening Rooftops for Sustainable Communities 2:305-317. https://www.osti.gov/etdeweb/biblio/20861876

Benvenuti S (2014). Wildflower green roofs for urban landscaping, ecological sustainability and biodiversity. Landscape and Urban Planning 124:151-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.01.004

Bosabalidis AM (2002). Structural features of Origanum. In: Kintzios S (Εd). Oregano: The Genera Origanum and Lippia. CRC Press, London https://books.google.gr

Bresta P, Nikolopoulos D, Economou G, Vahamidis P, Lyra D, Karamanos A, Karabourniotis G (2011). Modification of water entry (xylem vessels) and water exit (stomata) orchestrates long term drought acclimation of wheat leaves. Plant Soil 347:179-193. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-011-0837-4

Cakmak I (2005). The role of potassium in alleviating detrimental effects of abiotic stresses in plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 168:521-530. https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.200420485

Cameron RWF, Blanusa T, Taylor JE, Salisbury A, Halstead AJ, Henricot B, Thompson K (2012). Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 11(2):129-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2012.01.002

Chaves MM, Maroco J, Pereira JS (2003). Understanding plant responses to drought-from genes to the whole plant. Functional Plant Biology 30:239-264. https://www.researchgate.net

Cook-Patton SC, Bauerle TL (2012). Potential benefits of plant diversity on vegetated roofs: a literature review. Journal of Environmental Management 106:85-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.04.003

Correia B, Pinto-Marijuanb M, Neves L, Brossac R, Celeste-Dias M, Costa A, …Pinto G (2013). Water stress and recovery in the performance of two Eucalyptus globulus clones: physiological and biochemical profiles. Physiologia Plantarum 150: 580-592. https://doi.org/10.1111/ppl.12110

Cristiano E, Deidda R, Viola F (2021). The role of green roofs in urban water-energy-food-ecosystem nexus: A review. Science of the Total Environment 756:143876. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143876

Dai A (2013). Increasing drought under global warming in observations and models. Nature Climate Change 3:52-58. https://doi:10.1038/nclimate1633

Dunnett NP, Kingsbury N (2008). Planting green roofs and living walls. Timber Press (2nd ed), Portland, Oregon.

Eksi M, Rowe DB (2019). Effect of substrate depth and type on plant growth for extensive green roofs in a Mediterranean climate. Journal of Green Building 14(2):29-44. https://doi.org/10.3992/1943-4618.14.2.29

Fan Y, Wang C, Nan Z (2018). Determining water use efficiency of wheat and cotton: a meta-regression analysis. Agricultural Water Management 199,48-60. https://ideas.repec.org

Farooq M, Wahid A, Kobayashi N, Fujita D, Basra SMA (2009). Plant drought stress: Effects, mechanisms and Management. Sustainable Agriculture 153-188. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00886451/document

Fassman E, Simcock A (2012). Moisture measurements as performance criteria for extensive living roof substrates. Environmental Engineering 138(8):841-851. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000532

Feitosa RC, Wilkinson SJ (2020). Small-scale experiments of seasonal heat stress attenuation through a combination of green roof and green walls. Journal of Cleaner Production 250:119443. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.119443

Figueiredo AC, Barroso JG, Pedro LG, Scheffer JC (2008). Factors affecting secondary metabolite production in plants: volatile components and essential oils. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 23(4):213-226. https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1875

Flexas J, Barón M, Bota J, Ducruet JM, Gallé A, Galmés J … Medrano H (2009). Photosynthesis limitations during water stress acclimation and recovery in the drought-adapted Vitis hybrid Richter-110 (V. berlandieri ×V. rupestris). Journal of Experimental Botany 60:2361-2377. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erp069

Flexas J, Medrano H (2002). Drought‐inhibition of photosynthesis in C3 plants: stomatal and non‐stomatal limitation revisited. Annals of Botany 89:183-189. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcf027

FLL (2010). Guideline for the planning, execution and upkeep of green-roof sites. (English ed.). Forschungsgesellschaft Landschaftsentwicklung Landschaftsbau.

Fokialakis N, Kalpoutzakis E, Tekwani BL (2006). Evaluation of the antimalarial and antileishmanial activity of plants from the Greek island of Crete. Journal of Natural Medicines 61(1):38. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11418-006-0013-y

Franceschi VR, Horner HT (1980). Calcium oxalate crystals in plants. The Botanical Review 46:360-427. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02860532

Galle A, Florez-Sarasa I, Aououad H, Flexas J (2011). The Mediterranean evergreen Quercus ilex and the semi-deciduous Cistus albidus differ in their leaf gas exchange regulation and acclimation to repeated drought and re-watering cycles. Journal of Experimental Botany 62:5207-5216. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11418-006-0013-y

Galle A, Florez-Sarasa I, Tomas M, Pou A, Medrano H, Ribas-Carbo M, Flexas J (2009). The role of mesophyll conductance during water stress and recovery in tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris): acclimation or limitation? Journal of Experimental Botany 60:2379-2390. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erp071

Galmés J, Medrano H, Flexas J (2007). Photosynthetic limitations in response to water stress and recovery in Mediterranean plants with different growth forms New Phytologist 175:81-93. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erp071

Getter K, Rowe B (2006). The role of extensive roofs in sustainable development. Hortsciensce 41(5):1276-1285. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org

Ghannoum O, Evans JR, Von Caemmerer S (2011). C4 photosynthesis and related CO2 concentrating mechanisms. Chapter 8. Springer, Dordrecht pp 129-146. https://www.researchgate.net

Gheek Batra N, Sharma V, Kumari N (2014). Drought-induced changes in chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments, and thylakoid membrane proteins of Vigna radiate. Journal of Plant Interactions 9(1):712-721. https://doi.org/10.1080/17429145.2014.905801

Geerts S, Raes D (2009). Deficit irrigation as an on-farm strategy to maximize crop water productivity in dry areas. Agricultural Water Management 96(9):1275-1284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2009.04.009

González-Burgos E, Carretero ME, Gómez-Serranillos MP (2011). Sideritis spp.: Uses, chemical composition and pharmacological activities-A review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 135(2):209-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep. 2011.03.014

Hallahan DL (2000). Monoterpenoid biosynthesis in glandular trichomes of labiate plants. Advances in Botanical Research 31:77-120. https://doi.org/10 .1016/S0065-2296(00)31007-2

Hatfield JL, Dold C (2019). Water-Use Efficiency: Advances and challenges in a changing climate. Frontiers in Plant Science 10:103. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.00103

IPCC (2014). Climate change: synthesis report. In: Pachauri RK, Meyer LA (Eds). Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva, Switzerland, pp 151.

IPCC (2007). Climate change: 2007 synthesis report (Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Geneva - IPCC.

Jusselme MD, Pruvost C, Motard E, Giusti-Miller S, Frechault S, Alphonse V, … Mora P (2019). Increasing the ability of a green roof to provide ecosystem services by adding organic matter and earthworms. Applied Soil Ecology 143:61-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2019.05.028

Karabourniotis G, Liakopoulos G, Nikolopoulos D, Bresta P (2020a). Protective and defensive roles of non-glandular trichomes against multiple stresses: structure–function coordination. Journal of Forestry Research 31:1-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-019-01034-4

Karabourniotis G, Horner HT, Bresta P, Nikolopoulos D, Liakopoulos G (2020b). New insights into the functions of carbon-calcium inclusions in plants. New Phytologist. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.16763

Karabourniotis G Fasseas K (1996). The dense indumentum with its polyphenol content may replace the protective role of the epidermis in some young xeromorphic leaves. Canadian Journal of Botany 74(3):347-351. https://doi.org/10.1139/b96-043

Katerji N, M Mastrorilli G Rana (2008). Water use efficiency of crops cultivated in the Mediterranean region: Review and analysis. European Journal of Agronomy 28(4):493-507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2007.12.003

Kokkinou I, Ntoulas N, Nektarios PA, Varela D (2016). Response of native aromatic and medicinal plant species to water stress on adaptive green roof systems. HortScience 51(5):608-614. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.51.5.608

Kondo MC, Fluehr JM, McKeon T, Branas CC (2018). Urban green space and its impact on human health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15(3):445. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030445

Langemeyer J, Wedgwood D, McPhearson T, Baro F, Madsen AL, Barton DN (2020). Creating urban green infrastructure where it is needed – A spatial ecosystem service-based decision analysis of green roofs in Barcelona. Science of the Total Environment 707:135487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135487

Le Houérou HH (1992). The role of saltbushes (Atriplex spp.) in arid land rehabilitation in the Mediterranean Basin: a review. Agroforestry Systems 18:107-148. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00115408

Lichtenthaler HK (1987). Chlorophylls and carotenoids: pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods in Enzymology 148:350-1000. https://doi.org/10.1016/0076-6879(87)48036-1

Liolios CC, Gortzi O, Lalas S, Tsaknis J, Chinou I (2009). Liposomal incorporation of carvacrol and thymol isolated from the essential oil of Origanum dictamnus L. and in vitro antimicrobial activity. Food Chemistry 112(1):77-83. https://www.sciencedirect.com

Liu W, Engel BA, Chen W, Wei W, Wang Y, Feng Q (2021). Quantifying the contributions of structural factors on runoff water quality from green roofs and optimizing assembled combinations using Taguchi method. Journal of Hydrology 593:125864. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2020.125864

Loder A (2014). There’s a meadow outside my workplace: A phenomenological exploration of aesthetics and green roofs in Chicago and Torondo. Landscape and Urban Planning 126:94-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.01.008

Lundholm JT, Peck SW (2008). Frontiers of green roof ecology. Urban Ecosystems 11:335-337. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-008-0070-y

Martinetti L, Tosca A, Spoleto P, Valaguss M, Gatt A (2018). Evaluation of water stress tolerance of some species suitable for extensive green roofs. Acta Horticulturae 1215:113-116. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2018.1215.20

Maxwell K, Johnson GN (2000). Chlorophyll fluorescence-a practical guide. Journal of Experimental Botany 51:659-668. https://doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/51.345.659

Moore TL, Rodak CM, Vogel JR (2017). Urban stormwater characterization, control and treatment. Water Environment Research 89(10):1876-1927. https://doi.org/10.2175/106143017X15023776270692

Moran A, Hunt W, Smith J (2005). Hydrologic and water quality performance from green roofs in Goldsboro and Raleigh, North Carolina. Greening Rooftops for Sustainable Communities, Proceedings of the Third North American Green Roofs 2005 Conference, The Cardinal Group, Washington, DC Toronto.

Mozafar A, Goodin JR (1970). Vesiculated hairs: a mechanism for salt tolerance in Atriplex halimus L. Plant Physiology 45:62-65. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.45.1.62

Nektarios PA, Ntoulas N, McElroy S, Volterrani M, Arbis G (2011). Effect of olive mill compost on native soil characteristics and tall fescue turfgrass development. Agronomy Journal 103(5):1524. https://doi.org/10.2134/ agronj2011.0145

Nila MUS, Beierkuhnlein C, Jaeschke A, Hoffmann S, Hossain ML (2019). Predicting the effectiveness of protected areas of Natura 2000 under climate change. Ecological Processes 8(1):13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-019-0168-6

Ntoulas N, Nektarios PA, Spaneas K, Kadoglou N (2012). Semi-extensive green roof substrate type and depth effects on Zoysia matrella ‘Zeon” growth and drought tolerance under different irrigation regimes. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B-Plant Soil Science 62(1). https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10. 1080/09064710.2012.681391

Nydrioti E, Papadopoulou M, Nektarios PA (2009). Turfgrass growth and evapotranspiration in intensive green roof systems. Acta Horticulturae 881:721-724. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2010.881.118

Palazón J, Moyano E, Bonfill M, Cusidó RM, Piñol MT (2006). Tropane alkaloids in plants and genetic engineering of their biosynthesis. Floriculture, Ornamental and Plant Biotechnology, Volume II, Global Science Books, UK pp 219.

Papafotiou M, Adami Ι (2020). Effect of substrate type and irrigation frequency on growth of the bee-friendly plant Thymus citriodorus on an urban extensive green roof. Acta Horticulturae 1298:575-580. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2020.1298.79

Papafotiou Μ, Tassoula L, Mellos K (2018). Construction and maintenance factors affecting most the growth of shrubby Mediterranean native plants on urban extensive green roofs. Acta Horticulturae 1215:101-108. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2018.1215.18

Papafotiou M, Tassoula L, Liakopoulos G, Kargas G (2016). Effect of substrate type and irrigation frequency on growth of Mediterranean xerophytes on green roofs. Acta Horticulturae 1108:309-316. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1108.41

Papafotiou M, Pergialioti N, Tassoula L, Massas I, Kargas G (2013). Growth of native aromatic xerophytes in an extensive Mediterranean green roof, as affected by substrate type and depth, and irrigation frequency. HortScience 48(10):1327-1333. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.48.10.1327

Papafotiou M, Pergialioti N, Papanastassatos EA, Tassoula L, Massas I, Kargas G (2012). Effect of substrate type and depth and the irrigation frequency on growth of semi-woody Mediterranean species in green roofs. Acta Horticulturae 990:481-486. https://www.researchgate.net

Papafotiou M, Kargas G, Lytra I (2005). Olive-mill waste compost as a growth medium component for foliage potted plants. HortScience 40:1746-1750. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org

Perdetzoglou D, Kofinas C, Chinou I, Loukis A, Gally A (1996). A comparative study of eight taxa of Lomelosia RAF. (Dipsacaceae) from Greece, according to their fatty acid and sterol composition and antibacterial activity. Feddes Repertorium 107(1-2):37-42. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/fedr.19961070107

Raven JΑ, Smith FA (1976). Nitrogen assimilation and transport in vascular land plants in relation intracellular pH regulation. New Phytologist 76:415-431. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1976.tb01477.x

Reis M, Inácio H, Rosa A, Caccedilio J, Monteiro A (2001). Grape marc compost as an alternative growing media for greenhouse tomato. Acta Horticulturae 554:75-82. https://www.researchgate.net

Rowe B, Kolp MR, Greer S, Getter KL (2014). Comparison of irrigation efficiency and plant health of overhead, drip, and sub-irrigation for extensive green roofs. Ecological Engineering 64:306-313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2013.12.052

Said O, Fulder S, Khalil K, Azaizeh H, Kassis E, Said B (2008). Maintaining a physiological blood glucose level with `Glucolevel’, a combination of four anti- diabetes plants used in the traditional Arab herbal medicine. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 5:421-428. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nem047

Said O, Khalil K, Fulder S, Azaizeh H (2002). Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal herbs in Israel, the Golan Heights and the West Bank region. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 83:251-265. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00253-2

Sangüesa-Barreda G, Camarero JJ, Sánchez-Salguero R, Gutiérrez E, Linares JC, Génova M, … López-Sáez JA (2019). Droughts and climate warming desynchronize Black pine growth across the Mediterranean Basin. Science of The Total Environment 697:133989. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133989

Santamouris M (2014). Cooling the cities – A review of reflective and green roof mitigation technologies to fight heat island and improve comfort in urban environments. Solar Energy 103:682-703. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2012.07.003

Santos M, Dianez F, Gonzalez del Valle M, Tello JC (2008). Grape marc compost: microbial studies and suppression of soil-born mycosis in vegetable seedlings. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 24(8):1493-1505. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-007-9631-0

Savi T, Andri S, Nardini A (2013). Impact of different green roof layering on plant water status and drought survival. Ecological Engineering 57:188-196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2013.04.048

Shackleton K, N Bell, H Smith L, Davies (2012). The role of shrubs and perennials in the capture and mitigation of particulate air pollution in London. Centre for Environmental Policy. Imperial College London. http://content.tfl.gov.uk/role-gi-pmpollution.pdf

Silva BR, Mantovani A, Mantuano DG, Rola SM, Barbosa MC (2018). Evaluating plant species suitability for a substrate-free tropical green roof. Online Journal of Biological Sciences 18(4):401-423. https://doi.org/10.3844/ojbsci. 2018.401.423

Singh SP, Singh RP, Tiwari AK (2019). Evaluation of sugarcane varieties based on stomatal behavior under water stress condition. Sugar Technology 21:678. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12355-018-0680-5

Smaoui A, Barhoumi Z, Rabhi M, Abdelly C (2011). Localization of potential ion transport pathways in vesicular trichome cells of Atriplex halimus L. Protoplasma 248:363-372. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00709-010-0179-8

Souza BD, Meiado MV, Rodrigues BM, Santos MG (2010). Water relations and chlorophyll fluorescence responses of two leguminous trees from the Caatinga to different watering regimes. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 32:235-244. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-009-0394-0

Stavrianakou S, Liakopoulos G, Miltiadou D, Markoglou AN, Ziogas BN, Karabourniotis G (2010). Antifungal and antibacterial capacity of extracted material from non-glandular and glandular leaf hairs applied at physiological concentrations. Plant Stress 4:25-30. https://www.academia.edu

Sun J, Gu J, Zeng J, Han S, Song A, Chen F … Chen S (2013). Changes in leaf morphology, antioxidant activity and photosynthesis capacity in two different drought-tolerant cultivars of chrysanthemum during and after water stress. Scientia Horticulturae 161:249-258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2013.07.015

Tassoula L, Papafotiou M, Liakopoulos G, Kargas G (2015). Growth of native xerophytes Convolvulus cneorum L. on an extensive Mediterranean green roof under different substrate types and irrigation regimes. Hortscience 50(7):1118-1124. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.50.7.1118

Tooulakou G, Giannopoulos A, Nikolopoulos D, Bresta P, Dotsika E, Orkoula MG … Karabourniotis G (2016). Alarm photosynthesis: calcium oxalate crystals as an internal CO2 source in plants. Plant Physiology 171(4):2577-2585. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.16.00111

Turner IM (1994). Sclerophylly: primarily protective? Functional Ecology 8:669-675.

Vardakas CI, Majchrzak D, Wagner KH, Elmadfa I, Kafatos A (2006). Lipid concentrations of wild edible greens in Crete. Food Chemistry 4:822-834. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.08.058

Varone L, Ribas-Carbo M, Cardona C, Gallé A, Medrano H, Gratani L, Flexas J (2012). Stomatal and non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis in seedlings and saplings of Mediterranean species pre-conditioned and aged in nurseries: Different response to water stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany 75:235-247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2011.07.007

Vijayaraghavan K (2016). Green roofs: A critical review on the role of components, benefits, limitations and trends. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 57:740-752. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.119

Walters SA, Stoelzle Midden K (2018). Sustainability of urban agriculture: vegetable production on green roofs. Agriculture 8(11):168. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture8110168

Ward D, Spiegel M, Saltz D (1997). Gazelle herbivory and interpopulation differences in calcium oxalate content of leaves of a desert lily. Journal of Chemical Ecology 23:333-346. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/B:JOEC.0000006363.34360.9d

Whittinghill LJ, Rowe DB, Andresen JA, Cregg BM (2015). Comparison of stormwater runoff from Sedum, native prairie, and vegetable producing green roofs. Urban Ecosystem 18:13-29. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-014-0386-8

Whittinghill LJ, Rowe DB, Cregg BM (2013). Evaluation of vegetable production on extensive green roofs. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 37(4):465-484. https://doi.org/10.1080/21683565.2012.756847

Whittinghill LJ, Rowe DB (2012). The role of green roof technology in urban agriculture. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 27(4):314-322. https://doi.org/10.1017/S174217051100038X

William R, Goodwell A, Richardson M, Le PVV, Kumar P, Stillwell AS (2016). An environmental cost-benefit analysis of alternative green roofing strategies. Ecological Engineering 95:1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.06.091

Xue M, Farrell C (2020). Use of organic wastes to create lightweight green roof substrates with increased plant-available water. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 48:126569. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2019.126569

Yu L, Gao X, Zhao X (2020). Global synthesis of the impact of droughts on crops’ water-use efficiency (WUE): Towards both high WUE and productivity. Agricultural Systems 177:102723. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2019.102723

Zindler-Frank E (1991). Calcium oxalate crystal formation and growth in two legume species as altered by Strontium. Botanica Acta 104:229-232. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1438-8677.1991.tb00222.x




How to Cite

TASSOULA, L., PAPAFOTIOU, M., LIAKOPOULOS, G., & KARGAS, G. (2021). Water use efficiency, growth and anatomic-physiological parameters of Mediterranean xerophytes as affected by substrate and irrigation on a green roof. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 49(2), 12283. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha49212283



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha49212283