Biochemical Characterisation and Sensory Evaluation of Differently Coloured and Shaped Tomato Cultivars
Keywords:ascorbic acid; antioxidant activity; carotenoids; phenols; sensory panel; sugars; volatiles
Antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, colour, sugar, volatiles, ascorbic acid and carotenoid (β-carotene and lycopene) contents of differently coloured and shaped tomato cultivars (cvs) grown in the Eastern Mediterranean region, Turkey were determined, along with a sensory evaluation. Tomato cultivars of two different types (cherry and beefsteak) and four different colours (red, yellow, orange and brown) were analysed. All plants were simultaneously grown in the same field and subjected to identical horticultural practices to minimise the effects of environmental conditions and to maximise those related to genotype. The red cherry cultivar had the highest lycopene content, while the orange beefsteak cultivar had the highest β-carotene content. The highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and hardness scores were found in cherry-type tomatoes, except the yellow one. The red cherry cultivar had the highest sugar content. Red and brown cherry cultivars were also significant in terms of their high carotenoid and sugar contents, along with a high antioxidant activity. The brown cherry cultivar had the highest total phenol content. The highest quantities of 2-hexenal, 3-hexen-1-ol, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one were detected in red cultivars. The brown cherry cultivar had the highest sweetness, typical aroma and hardness scores, while the yellow beefsteak cultivars the lowest sweetness typical aroma scores. In terms of sensory parameters, red and brown cultivars scored higher than yellow and orange ones.
Arias R, Lee TC, Logendra L, Janes H (2000). Correlation of lycopene measured by HPLC with the L ⁄, a ⁄, b colour readings of a hydroponic tomato and the relationship of maturity with colour and lycopene content. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48(5):1697-1702.
Beckles DM (2012). Factors affecting the postharvest soluble solids and sugar content of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology 63:129-140.
Buttery RG, Ling LC (1993). Volatile components of tomato fruit and plant parts: relationship and biogenesis. In bioactive volatile compounds from plants. American Chemical Society: Washington, DC.
Causse M, Buret M, Robini K, Verschave P (2003). Inheritance of nutritional and sensory quality traits in fresh market tomato and relation to consumer preferences. Journal of Food Science 68(7):2342-2350.
Clydesdale FM (1993). Colour as a factor in food choice. Critical Reviews of Food Science and Nutrition 33:83-101.
Falara V, Akhtar TA, Nguyen TTH, Spyropoulou EA, Bleeker PM, Schauvinhold I, Pichersky E (2011). The tomato terpene synthase gene family. Plant Physiology 157:770-778.
FAOSTAT (2018). Crops visualize data. Retrieved 2018, June 3, from http from http://faostat3.fao.org/browse/Q/QC/E.
Fraser PD, Enfissi EMA, Bramley PM (2009). Genetic engineering of carotenoid formation in tomato fruit and the potential application of systems and synthetic biology approaches. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 483:196-204.
Frias-Moreno N, Nuñez-Barrios A, Perez-Leal R, Gonzalez-Franco AC, Hernandez-Rodriguez A, Robles-Hernandez L (2014). Effect of nitrogen deficiency and toxicity in two varieties of tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum L.). Agricultural Science 5(14):1361-1368.
Gómez-Romero M, Segura-Carretero A, Fernández-Gutiérrez A (2010). Metabolite profiling and quantification of phenolic compounds in methanol extracts of tomato fruit. Phytochemistry 71:1848-1864.
Haminiuk CWI, Maciel GM, Plata-Oviedo MSV, Peralta RM (2012). Phenolic compounds in fruits – an overview. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 47:2023-2044.
Iijima Y, Iwasaki Y, Otagiri Y, Tsugawa H, Sato T, Otomo H, Sekine Y, Obata A (2016). Flavor characteristics of the juices from fresh market tomatoes differentiated from those from processing tomatoes by combined analysis of volatile profiles with sensory evaluation. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 80(12):2401-2411.
Kacjan Maršić N, Osvald J, Jakše M (2005). Evaluation of ten cultivars of determinate tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.), grown under different climatic conditions. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica 85(2):321-328.
Kapoulas N, Ilić ZS, Đurovka M, Trajković R, Milenković L (2011). Effect of organic and conventional production practices on nutritional value and antioxidant activity of tomatoes. African Journal of Biotechnology 10(71):15938-15945.
Klee HJ (2010). Improving the flavor of fresh fruits: genomics, biochemistry, and biotechnology. New Phytologist 187:44-56.
Klimczak I, Maecka M, Szlachta M, Gliszczyńska-Świgło A (2007). Effect of storage on the content of polyphenols, vitamin C and the antioxidant activity of orange juices. Journal of Food Composition Analysis 20:313-322.
Krumbein A, Peters P, Brückner B (2004). Flavour compounds and a quantitative descriptive analysis of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) of different cultivars in short-term storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology 32:15-28.
Lee HS, Castle WS, Coates GA (2001). High-performance liquid chromatography for the characterization of carotenoids in the new sweet orange (Earlygold) grown in Florida, USA. Journal of Chromatography A 913:371-377.
Lenucci MS, Cadinu D, Taurino M, Piro G, Dalessandro G (2006). Antioxidant composition in cherry and high-pigment tomato cultivars. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54:2606-2613.
Leonardi C, Ambrosino P, Esposito F, Fogliano V (2000). Antioxidative activity and carotenoid and tomatine contents in different typologies of fresh consumption tomatoes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48:4723-4727.
Lewinsohn E, Sitrit Y, Bar E, Azulay Y, Ibdah M, Meir A, … Tadmor Y (2005). Not just colours- carotenoid degradation as a link between pigmentation and aroma in tomato and watermelon fruit. Trends in Food Science and Technology 16:407-415.
Mayer F, Takeoka GR, Buttery RG, Whitehand LC, Naim M Rabinowithch HD (2008). Studies on the aroma of five fresh tomato cultivars and the precursors of cis- and trans-4,5-Epoxy-(E)-2-Decenals and methional. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56:3749-3757.
Meléndez-Martínez AJ, Vicario IM, Heredia FJ (2007). Rapid assessments of vitamin activity through objective colour measurements for the quality control of orange juices with diverse carotenoid profiles. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55:2808-2815.
Meléndez-Martínez AJ, Mapelli-Brahm P, Benítez-González A, Stinco CM (2015). A comprehensive review on the colourless carotenoids phytoene and phytofluene. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 15(572):188-200.
Melgarejo P, Salazar DM, Artes F (2000). Organic acids and sugars composition of harvested pomegranate fruits. European Food Research and Technology 211:185-190.
Mustilli AC, Fenzi F, Gliento R, Alfano F, Bowler C (1999). Phenotype of the tomato high pigment-2 mutant is caused by a mutation in the tomato homologue of de-etiolated. 1. Plant Cell 11:145-157.
Pawliszyn J (1997). Solid Phase Microextraction: Theory and Practice. New York: Wiley-VCH.
Phillips KM, Tarrago-Trani MT, Gebhardt SE, Exler J, Patterson KY, Haytowitz DB, Pehrsson PR, Holden JM (2010). Stability of vitamin C in frozen raw fruit and vegetable homogenates. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 23(3):253-259.
Pinela J, Barros L, Carvalho AM, Ferreira IC (2012). Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) farmer’ varieties in Northeastern Portugal homegardens. Food and Chemical Toxicology 50:829-834.
Raffo A, Leonardi C, Fogliano V, Ambrosino P, Salucci M, Gennaro L, … Quaglia G (2002). Nutritional value of cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Naomi F1) harvested at different ripening stages. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50(22):6550-6556.
Rambla JL, Tikunov YM, Monforte AJ, Bovy AG, Granell A (2014). The expanded tomato fruit volatile landscape. Journal of Experimental Botany 65(16):4613-4623.
Rolf FJ (1993). NTSYS-pc, Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system, version 1.18. New York, Exeter, Setauket.
Sacks EJ, Francis DM (2001). Genetic and environmental variation for tomato flesh colour in a population of modern breeding lines. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science 126:221-226.
Selahle MK, Sivakumar D, Soundy P (2014). Effect of photo-selective nettings on post-harvest quality and bioactive compounds in selected tomato cultivars. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 94(11):2187-2195.
Shen J, Tieman D, Jones JB, Taylor MG, Schmelz E, Huffaker A, … Klee HJ (2014). A 13-lipoxygenase, Tomlox C, is essential for synthesis of C5 flavour volatiles in tomato. Journal of Experimental Botany 65(2):419-428.
Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods in Enzymology 299:152-178.
Socaci AS, Socaciu C, Mureşan C, Fărcaş A, Tofană M, Vicaş B, Pinteac A (2014). Chemometric discrimination of different tomato cultivars based on their volatile fingerprint in relation to lycopene and total phenolics content. Phytochemical Analysis 25:161-169.
Tanksley SD (2004). The genetic, developmental, and molecular bases of fruit size and shape variation in tomato. The Plant Cell 16:181-189.
Téllez-Pérez C, Cardador-Martínez A, Mounir S, Montejano-Gaitán JG, Sobolik V, Allaf K (2013). Effect of instant controlled pressure drop process coupled to drying and freezing on antioxidant activity of green ‘Poblano’ pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Food Nutrition Science 4:321-334.
Tieman DM, Zeigler M, Schmelz EA, Taylor MG, Bliss P, Kirst M, Klee HJ (2006). Identification of loci affecting flavour volatile emissions in tomato fruits. Journal of Experimental Botany 57:887-896.
Tieman D, Bliss P, Mcintyre LM, Blandon-Ubeda A, Bies D, Odabasi AZ, … Klee HJ (2012). The chemical interactions underlying tomato flavor preference. Current Biology 22: 1035-1039.
TS 3904 ISO 3972 (2001). Duyusal analizler [Sensory analysis Methodology]. Retrieved 2018, May 13, from https://intweb.tse.org.tr/standard (in Turkish).
Yilmaz E (2001). The chemistry of fresh tomato flavor. Turkish Journal of Agricultural and Forestry 25:149-155.
How to Cite
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.