Response of Four <i>Russula</i> Species under Copper Sulphate and Lead Acetate Treatments
AbstractMushrooms have a species-specific affinity for heavy metals in soil. Therefore, mushrooms may act as an effective bioaccumulator of metals, thus can be used in mycoremediation technologies to remove and recover heavy metals from soil. The response of four Russula species to copper sulfate and lead acetate treatments concerning the absorption, accumulation and translocation of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Pb was studied. Differences in metal concentrations were recorded between caps and stipes of the fruiting body and varied widely between the tested species. This confirms the species-dependent features of heavy metal absorption in mushrooms. Another factor that showed an influence on the bioavailability of metals in mushrooms was the metal content of soil. Similarities between the absorption and accumulation of copper and zinc were observed for R. vesca and R. atropurpurea. The treatments influenced the bioabsorption of heavy metals by the mushrooms and the metal mobility in the fruiting body. After lead acetate treatment, R. vesca, R. atropurpurea and R. integra had an increased bioaccumulation capacity compared to the control. Hyperaccumulating species, such as R. nigricans for lead soil pollution, would lead to the best results for mycoremediation as they are capable of accumulating higher concentration of heavy metals in comparison to other mushroom species.
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