The Response of Chickpea Cultivars to Field Water Deficit
AbstractAn experiment was carried out in 2006 to investigate the effects of different irrigation regimes (I1, I2, I3 and I4 for irrigation after 80, 110, 140 and 170 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively) on ground cover, yield and yield components of four chickpea cultivars (Arman, ILC and Jam from kabuli type and Pirooz from desi type) in the field. In most stages of crop growth and development, the ground cover of ILC under different irrigation regimes was higher than that of the other cultivars. The ground cover of all chickpea cultivars was reduced, as water deficit severity increased. Grain yield and yield components were significantly affected by irrigation regimes. Mean grains per plant, 1000 grain weight and grain yield per unit area for I4 were significantly lower than those for other irrigation regimes, but these traits did not differ significantly among I1, I2 and I3. Thus, irrigation after 140 mm evaporation from class A pan could be a suitable irrigation regime for chickpea cultivars, when water resources are limited. Grains per plant did not differ significantly among chickpea cultivars. In comparison, the largest and the smallest grains were obtained from ILC and Pirooz, respectively. In general, mean 1000 grain weight of kabuli type cultivars was higher than that of desi type cultivar. The superiority of ILC in ground cover and 1000 grain weight resulted in higher grain yield, compared to other cultivars. However, no significant differences in grain yield of Arman, Jam and Pirooz were observed. Interaction of cultivar x irrigation for ground cover, grain weight and grain yield per unit area was not significant, indicating that ILC was a superior cultivar under both well and limited irrigation conditions.
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