Organelle Genetic Diversity and Phylogeography of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)
The paper reviews the present knowledge of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) diversity, historical and geographical distribution, based on mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA data. The observed differences in the estimates of genetic differentiation between different types of genomes suggest that both pollen and seed contribute significantly to gene flow within species. Organelles' diversity represents an important criterion which could be later applied in planning for future forest management and breeding through a better understanding of adaptation strategies of different Scots pine haplotypes. This analysis would provide valuable references when facing current day problems with climate change, species adaptation, and loss of forest with negative effects on biodiversity. Research on organelles' diversity could lead to important practical applications in areas such as traceability and eco-certification of forest products, and the identification of plant populations for conservation. Based on the results from earlier investigations, Scots pine in Europe can be divided into at least three evolutionary units (Spain, northern/central Europe and northern Fennoscandia), each with a different origin after glaciations. However, it must be emphasized that these interpretations are preliminary and further mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA data need to be analyzed in conjunction with evidence from pollen and fossil analysis.
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