Gas-Chromatographic Analysis of Major Volatile Compounds Found in Traditional Fruit Brandies from Transylvania, Romania
AbstractIn the current study, the major volatile compounds from three categories of traditional fruit brandies (plum, apple and pear) were characterized by gas-chromatography (GC-FID). There were collected 26 samples from different locations of Transylvania (Romania), all made by traditional technologies involving fermentation in barrels and distillation in copper stills. The major volatile compounds, besides ethanol, identified and quantified were: acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol, 1-propanol, 2-butanol, iso-butylic alcohol, alcool amyl active, iso-amylic alcohol, 1-butanol and furfural. For each type of brandy, positive but no significant correlations between methanol and furfural concentrations in plum and apple brandy were noticed. To evaluate the differences in composition regarding the geographical origin of plum brandies and to analyze the composition of plum, apple and pear brandies it has been compared the mean values (MVP, MVA and MVPe) obtained for each volatile. For plum brandies it has been observed differences among the mean values of each volatile, in samples originating from counties Cluj, BistriÅ£a-NÄƒsÄƒud and MaramureÅŸ. For methanol, acetaldehyde and 1-propanol the MVP Cluj values were significantly higher than MVP BistriÅ£a-NÄƒsÄƒud. For iso-butylic alcohol, amyl active alcohol, iso-amylic alcohol the MVP Cluj values were significantly higher than for BistriÅ£a-NÄƒsÄƒud and MaramureÅŸ, while for ethyl acetate and furfural the MVP BistriÅ£a-NÄƒsÄƒud were significantly higher than MVP Cluj and MVP MaramureÅŸ. When compared the mean values of volatiles in plum vs apple vs pear brandies, for ethyl acetate, methanol, 2-butanol, 1-propanol and 1-butanol, the MVPe values were significantly higher than MVA, for furfural, amyl active and iso-amylic alcohols, while for acetaldehyde the MVPe values were significantly higher than MVP. Methanol represented the major volatile component, characteristic to fruit brandies, released by enzymatic degradation of methoxylated pectins. Therefore, this molecule can be considered not only a parameter of distillate safety but also an indicator of natural origin of distillate and traditional processing.
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