Effect of Calcium on the Alleviation of Boron Toxicity and Localization of Boron and Calcium in Cell Wall of Wheat
AbstractA greenhouse experiment involving four levels of B (0, 5, 10 and 20 mg B kg-1 as boric acid, H3BO3), and three levels of Ca (0, 100 and200 mg Ca kg-1 calcium chloride, CaCl2) were conducted on wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. 'Gerek-79'). Boron toxicity symptomsstrongly occurred at 10 and 20 mg B kg-1 levels with and without applied Ca. Without applied calcium, boron toxicity symptoms werealso weakly expressed at 5 mg B kg-1 level. Growing wheat plants with application of high levels of Ca partially alleviated the toxicitysymptoms. Shoot and root dry weight of plant was strongly depressed and decreased by applied boron; however, Ca applications reducedthe inhibitory effect of B on the plant growth. Shoot and root boron concentrations and boron uptake were increased with increasingB application, but decreased with Ca applications. Controversially, applied calcium increased calcium concentrations and uptake anddecreased boron concentrations and uptake. Most of total boron and calcium were localized in the cell wall of plant. While applied boron increased the concentration of B on the cell wall, it decreased the concentration of Ca on the cell wall. In addition, applied calciumincreased the cell wall calcium concentration, whereas decreased the cell wall boron concentration. It was determined that boron toxicitycould be alleviated by addition of calcium in plant growing media.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.