Effects of Cultural System (Organic and Conventional) on Growth, Photosynthesis and Yield Components of Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.) under Semi-Arid Environment
AbstractOrganic sweet maize consists of a new industrial crop product. Field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cultural systems on growth, photosynthesis and yield components of sweet maize crop (Zea mays L. F1 hybrid Midas). A randomized complete block design was employed with four replicates per treatment (organic fertilization: cow manure (5, 10 and 20 t ha1), poultry manure (5, 10 and 20 t ha1) and barley mulch (5, 10 and 20 t ha1), synthetic fertilizer (240 kg N ha1): 21-0-0 and control). The lowest dry weight, height and leaf area index and soil organic matter were measured in the control treatment. Organic matter content was proportionate to the amount of manure applied. The control plots had the lowest yield (1593 kg ha-1) and the double rate cow manure plots the had greatest one. (6104 kg ha-1). High correlation between sweet corn yield and organic matter was registered. Moreover, the lowest values of 1000-grain weight were obtained with control plot. The fertilizer plot gave values, which were similar to the full rate cow manure treatment. The photosynthetic rate of the untreated control was significantly lower than that of the other treatments. The photosynthetic rate increased as poultry manure and barley mulch rates decreased and as cow manure increased. Furthermore, the untreated control had the lowest stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content. Our results indicated that sweet corn growth and yield in the organic plots was significantly higher than those in the conventional plots.
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