Evaluation of Old Apple Cultivars Grown in Central Transylvania, Romania
Keywords:apple, varieties, germplasm, spot market
In Romania, in this rather long period of transition, there are still many fruit tree orchards with old (classical) varieties which do not entirely meet the nowadays market and consumers criteria. Since these orchards cannot be replaced overnight, in this study it have observed the main yielding and quality characteristics of several well known apple varieties grown in Central Transylvania (Romania), in order to preserve the germplasm and evaluate the possibility to grow some of the best ones for particular or spot markets. According to data registered in this orchard, Jonathan had the most vigorous growth, expressed by the crown and trunk diameters, while Starkrimson had the weakest vigour. The largest fruits were found in Golden Delicious (186.5 g) and the smallest fruits in Jonathan (117 g) and Wagener (119 g). The highest fruit yield was harvested in Wagener (60.0 kg/tree), while the other classical varieties (Jonathan, Kaltherer Bmer, Starkrimson) yielded significantly less than the mean of experiment. The yield index (fruit yield/trunk section area) was comprised between 0.251 kg/cm2 in Wagener and 0.099 kg/cm2 in Jonathan. Fruit quality was very good in Kaltherer Bmer and Jonathan, good in Golden Delicious and accepTab. in the other two tested varieties. It can be concluded that valuable growing, yielding and fruit quality characteristics can be found in these old apple varieties which make them attractive both as germplasm sources and as commercial varieties for particular and spot markets.
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