In vitro multiplication, antimicrobial, and insecticidal activity of Capparis spinosa L.


  • Wesam G. SHAHROUR Al-Balqa Applied University, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Department of Biotechnology, Al-Salt 19117 (JO)
  • Mohamad A. SHATNAWI Al-Balqa Applied University, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Department of Biotechnology, Al-Salt 19117 (JO)
  • Mohammad AL-ALAWI Al-Balqa Applied University, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Department of Plant Production and Protection, Al-Salt 19117 (JO)
  • Rida A. SHIBLI University of Jordan, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture and Crop Sciences, Amman; The University of Jordan, Hamdi Mango Center for Scientific Research (HMCSR), Amman (JO)
  • Tamara S. ALQUDAH The University of Jordan, Hamdi Mango Center for Scientific Research (HMCSR), Amman (JO)
  • Majdi M. MAJDALAWI Al-Balqa Applied University, Zarqa University College, Zarqa (JO)
  • Abdel Rahman AL-TAWAHA Al Hussein bin Talal University, Department of Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 20, Maan (JO)
  • Ahmad ALJAMMAL Al-Balqa Applied University, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Department of Biotechnology, Al-Salt 19117 (JO)



antimicrobial activity, Bemisia tabaci, Capparis spinosa L., in vitro multiplication, insecticidal activity, medical plant


Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) is a medical plant grown in Jordan. Mass harvesting of caper plants from their origin environments caused a reduction of these germplasm. Therefore, an easy and consistent method for clonal proliferation and callus induction was established for this species. C. spinosa L. in vitro culture affected in MS medium provided by 0.5 mg/L BAP gave 5.9 microshoots/explant. Two months later MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L NAA developed a maximum callus induction of 33.1 mm. Ex vitro, in vitro, and callus growth of C. spinosa L. using ethanolic and methanolic extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against different species of bacteria and fungi. Both ex-vitro and in vitro plants exhibited similar antimicrobial activity. Maximum ex vitro plant antibacterial activity was (23 mm ± 0.58 inhibition zone) against Staphylococcus epidermidi. In comparison, callus extracts gave the highest antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Moreover, caper plant extracts showed different antifungal effects against the tested fungi species. Investigation of the data showed that ex-vitro extract exhibited maximum antifungal activity compared to in vitro plants. Additionally, exposed Bemisia tabaci 4th nymphal instar to C. spinosa L. extracts suffered mortality ranging from 2 to 28%.  In most instances, both ethanolic and methanolic extracts affected the survival of B. tabaci more than the control. The current study confirmed that C. spinosa L. has a wide range of antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activity. 


Abdellatef E, Ahmed MM, Daffalla HM, Khalafalla MM (2010). Enhancement of adventitious shoot regeneration in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivar promo KY using ethylene inhibitors. Journal of Phytology 2:61-67.

Abe T, Futsuhara Y (1986). Genotypic variability for callus formation and plant regeneration in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetic 72:3-10.

Adwan GM, Omar GI (2021). Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and genotoxic potential of Capparis spinosa (L.) plant extracts. Microbiology Research Journal International 31(1):48-57.

Al Shhab M, Shatnawi M, Abu-Rommanm S, Majdalawi M, Abubaker S and Shahrour W (2022). Antimicrobial activity and micropropagation of Ruta graveolens medicinal plant. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 28:352‒358.

Al-Ajlouni Z, Ajlouni M, Shatnawi M, Shibli R, Makhdmeh I, Abu-Romman S, Al-Ghazawi A. (2012). Callus induction, plant regeneration, and growth on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). South Western Journal of Horticulture, Biology and Environment 3(1):25-39.

Al-Mahmood H, Shatnawi M, Shibli R, Makhadmeh I, Abubaker S, Shadiadeh A (2012). Clonal propagation and medium-term conservation Capparis spinosa: A medicinal plant. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 6(22):3826-3836.

AlMous LA, AlFaris NA, Alshammari GM, ALTamimi JZ, Alsyadi MM, Alagal RI, Abdo Yahya M (2022). Antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of two extracts from Capparis spinosa L. and Rumex nervosus and molecular docking investigation of selected major compounds. Saudi Journal of Biological Science 9(8):103346.

Alrayes LM, Shatnawi MA, Al Khateeb WM (2018). In vitro studies on callus induction of Moringa peregrina (Forssk) Fiori and antifungal activity of plant extract. Jordan Journal of Agricultural Science 14(2):146-156.

Al-Snafi AE (2015). The chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Capparis spinosa – an over view. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research 5(2):93-100.

Ambrozin ARP, Vieira PC, Fernandes JB, Da Silva MFGF, Albuquerque S (2004). Trypanocidal activity of Meliaceae and Rutaceae plant extracts. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 2:227-231.

Argentieri M, Macchia F, Fanizzi FP, Avato P (2012) Bioactive compounds from Capparis spinosa subsp. rupestris. Industrial Crops and Products 36(1):65-69.

Atemni I, Hjouji K, Mehdaoui I Ainane A, Benjelloun T, Rais Z, Taleb M, Ainane T (2021). In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Capparis spinosa L. fruit extracts. Pharmacology 2:538-545.

Ateyyat M, Al-Mazra’awi M, Abu-Rjai, T and Shatnawi MA (2009). Aqueous extracts of some medicinal plants are as toxic as Imidacloprid to the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Journal of Insect Science 9:1-6.

Awatef R, Hédia H, Sonia H, Haifa Y, Mohamed B (2017). In vitro germination and seedling development of Tunisian caper (Capparis spinosa L.). International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research 10:1-8.

Chalak L, Elbitar A (2006). Micropropagation of Capparis spinosa L. subsp. rupestris Sibth. and Sm. by nodal cuttings. Indian Journal of Biotechnology 5:555-558.

Cruz-Estrada A, Gamboa-Angulo M, Borges-Argáez R, Ruiz-Sánchez E (2013) Insecticidal effects of plant extracts on immature whitefly Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyroideae). Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 16(6).

Derwich E, Benziane Z, Boukir A (2009). Chemical compositions and insecticidal activity of essential oils of three plants Artemisia sp: Artemisia herba-alba, Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia pontica (morocco). Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry 8:1202-1211.

Eid A M, Mohammed Hawash M, Abualhasan M, Naser S, Dwaikat M, Mansour M (2023). Exploring the potent anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-Inflammatory effects of Capparis Spinosa oil nano-emulgel Coatings 13:1-14.

Gangwar K, Charu G (2018). Lifecycle, distribution, nature of the damage and economic importance of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Acta Science Agriculture 2:36-39.

Gull T, Anwar F, Sultana B, Alcayde MAC, Nouman W (2015). Capparis species: A potential source of bioactive and high-value components: a review. Indian Crops and Products 67:81-96.

Ibrahim O MS (2012). Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Capparis spinosa (Al-Kabara) and Aloe vera extracts against isolates bacterial skin wound infections in-vitro and in-vivo. Kufa Journal for Veterinary Medical Science 3(2):23-35.

Islam S, Jahan MAA, Khatun R (2005). In vitro regeneration and multiplication of year-round fruit bearing Moringa oleifera L. Journal of Biological Science 5:145-148.

Issah H, Duran RE (2021). Evaluating the Impact of strigolactone GR24 on Capparis spinosa L. callus production and phenolic compound content. Research Square 1-15.

Jager AK, Hutchings A, van Staden J (1996). Screening of Zulu medicinal plants for prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 52:95-100.

Kartsonas E, Papafotiou M (2007). Mother plant age and seasonal influence on in vitro propagation of Quercus euboica Pap. an endemic, rare and endangered oak species of Greece. Plant Cell, Tissue Organ Culture 90:111-116.

Kazem M, Farghaly S (2009). The role of mixing different plant extracts to boiled linseed oil for the control of whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Journal of Agriculture and Environment Science 5:813-824.

Kereša S, Stanković D, Batelja Lodeta K, Habuš Jerčić I, Bolarić S, Barić M, Bošnjak Mihovilović A (2019). Efficient protocol for the in vitro plantlet production of caper (Capparis orientalis Veill.) from the East Adriatic Coast. Agronomy 9(6);303.

Koufan M, Belkoura I, Mazri MA (2022). In vitro propagation of caper (Capparis spinosa L.): A review. Horticulturae 8:737.

Lemberkovics E, Kéry A, Kakasy E, and Szöke SB (2003). Effect of extraction method on the composition of essential oils. Acta Horticulturae 597: International Conference on Medical and Aromatic Plants. (Part II).

Mahboubi M, Mahboubi A (2014). Antimicrobial activity of Capparis spinosa as its usages in traditional medicine. Herba Polonica 60(1):39-48.

Miransari M, Smith DL (2019). Plant hormones and seed germination. Environmental and Experimental Botany 99:110-121.

Moghaddasi S M, Haddad Kashani H, Azarbad Z (2012). Capparis spinosa L. propagation and medicinal uses. Life Science Journal 9:684-686.

Murashige T, Skoog F (1962). A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiologia Plantarum 15:473-479.

Musallam I, Duwairy M, Shibli R (2011). Micropropagation of capper (Capparis spinosa L.). from wild plants. Functional Plant Science and Biotechnology 5:71-21.

Ndukwe IG, Habila JD., Bello IA, Adeleye EO (2006). Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial screening of crude extracts from leave stem bark and root bark of Ekebergia senegalensis. African Journal of Biotechnology 19:1792-1794.

Obeidat M, Shatnawi M, Al-alawi M, Al-Zu'bi E, Al-Dmoor H, Al-Qudah M, ElQudah J, Otri I (2011). Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of some plant leaves. Research Journal of Microbiology 7(1):59-67.

Polat M (2007). Capparis spinosa L. (Capparidaceae): a review. Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Fen Ve Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi 7:35-48.

Ramezani-Gask M, Bahrani MJ, Shekafandeh A, Salehi H, Taghvaei M, Al-Ahmadi MJA (2008). A comparison of different propagation methods of common Caper-bush (Capparis spinosa L.) as a new horticultural crop. International Journal of Plant Developmental Biology 2:106-110.

Shale TL, Strik WA, Van Staden J (1999). Screening of plants used by southern African traditional healers in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors and uterine relaxing activity. Journal Ethnopharmacol 64:9-14.

Shatnawi MA (2011a). Cryopreservation of Capparis spinosa shoot tips via vitrification, encapsulation dehydration and encapsulation vitrification. World Applied Science Journal 15(3):318-325.

Shatnawi MA (2011b). Multiplication and cryogenic storage of Artemisia herba-alba: A medicinal plants. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment Science 9:340-344.

Shatnawi MA, Shibli RA, Saifan S, Ashok K. S, Al Qudah T, Naik RR. (2023). Paronychia argentea L. usage in the Middle East (Jordan) and its biomedical profiles. In: Rajendram R, Preedy V, Patel V (Eds). Ancient and Traditional Foods, Plants, Herbs and Spices Used in the Middle East. 1st Ed., CRC Press, pp 279-291.

Shatnawi M, Abubaker S, Odat N, Al-Tawaha AR, Majdalawi M (2021a). Antimicrobial activity and micropropagation of selected Jordanian medicinal plant. Journal of Ecological Engineering 22(6):151-158.

Shatnawi M, Osman NA, Shibli R, Odat N, Al-Tawaha AR, Qudah T, Majdalawi M. (2021b). Effect of heavy metal on the in vitro growth of Paronchia argentea and its antimicrobial activity. Ecological Engineering and Environmental Technology 22(3):142-151.

Shatnawi M, Majdalawi M, Shahrour WR, Abu-Zahra T, Al-Tawaha AR (2022). Germination and in vitro Propagation of Gundelia tournefontii an Important Medicinal Plant. Ecological Engineering and Environmental Technology 23(1):57-64.

Solanki RD, Jha S (2018). Population dynamics and biology of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius) on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 7:3055-3058.

SPSS. (2017). SPSS complex samples, SPSS INC., Chicago ILL: USA.

Sujatha G, Kumari BD, Cioni PL, Flamini G (2008). Mass propagation and essential oil analysis of Artemisia vulgaris. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 105:176-183.

Taggar GK,Singh R (2020). Evaluation of some nonconventional insecticides against whitefly Bemisia tabaci in black gram. Indian Journal of Entomology 82:294-297.

Tlili N, Elfalleh W, Saadaoui E, Khaldi A, Triki S, Nasri N (2011). The caper (Capparis L.): ethnopharmacology, phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Fitoterapia 82:93-101.

Tlili N, Khaldi A, Triki S, Munné-Bosch S (2010). Phenolic compounds and vitamin antioxidants of caper (Capparis spinosa). Plant Foods Human Nutrition 65:260-265.

Zhou H F, Xie C, Jian R, Kang J, Li Y, Zhuang CL, Yang F, Zhang LL, Lai L, Wu T, Wu X (2011). Bioflavonoids from Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) fruits and their effects in inhibiting NF-kappa B activation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59(7):3060- 3065.




How to Cite

SHAHROUR, W. G., SHATNAWI, M. A., AL-ALAWI, M., SHIBLI, R. A., ALQUDAH, T. S., MAJDALAWI, M. M., AL-TAWAHA, A. R., & ALJAMMAL, A. (2024). In vitro multiplication, antimicrobial, and insecticidal activity of Capparis spinosa L. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 52(1), 13609.



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha52113609