Biodiversity of microbial populations as the indicator of biogenicity of soil under ashes and agricultural soil


  • Tatjana SEKULIĆ Academy of Applied Technical Studies Belgrade, Katarine Ambrozić 3 Belgrade (RS)
  • Vladanka STUPAR Academy of Applied Technical Studies Belgrade (RS)
  • Aleksandar STEVANOVIĆ Academy of Applied Technical Studies Belgrade (RS)
  • Zlata ŽIVKOVIĆ Academy of Applied Technical Studies Belgrade (RS)
  • Markola SAULIĆ Academy of Applied Technical Studies Belgrade (RS)
  • Milica BLAŽIĆ Academy of Applied Technical Studies Belgrade (BA)
  • Vera POPOVIĆ Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Maxim Gorky 30, 21000 Novi Sad; University of Bijeljina, Faculty of Agriculture, Pavlovic road bb, 76300 Bijeljina (RS)



amonificators, biogenicity of soil, microbial activity, nitrogen fixators


The number, activity and diversity of microorganisms define the level of biogenicity and indicate the quality and health of the soil. The abundance and structure of microbial communities vary in different types of soils, so in order to preserve and protect natural and agroecological systems, in addition to physical-chemical analyses, monitoring of dynamics of microbiological activity in agricultural and non-agricultural soil is also necessary. Each type of soil has its own characteristic micro biocenosis, and different methods of soil use can have a positive or negative impact on microbiological activity, which directly affects the fertility of the soil. Soil bacteria are very important in biogeochemical cycles, and biological nitrogen fixation plays an important role in nitrogen cycling by transferring atmospheric dinitrogen into the soil. It is performed by symbiotic and asymbiotic nitrogen-fixing microorganisms, called nitrogen fixators. Amonificators are bacteria that play a very important role in soil ecosystem, as well as nitrogen fixators. This group of bacteria participates in the processes of protein decomposition and transformation. The aim of the paper is to indicate, based on the presence of nitrogen fixators and amonificators in soil under ashes, the biogenicity of this soil at four different localities: pure ashes, soil under ashes covered with herbaceous vegetation, soil under ashes covered with wood vegetation and agricultural soil, and to give advice on future activities regarding recultivation of these types of soil under ashes. The results of the research showed that microorganisms are mostly represented in different numbers in the tested soils, which indicates variations on the soil biogenicity and quality.


Alieksieiev OO, Patyka VF (2016). Influence of biological products on the microbiom soil in the rhizosphere of Glycine max (L.) Merr. Science and World. Ukraina 12 (40):54-58.

Anđelković S, Jarak M, Vasić T, Radović J, Lugić Z, Anđelković B (2011). Brojnost mikroorganizama u agroekosistemima [The number of microorganisms in agroecosystems]. Ecologica 18 (63):481-484.

Bashan Y (1998). Inoculants of plant growth–promoting bacteria for use in agriculture. Biotechnology Advances 16:729-770.

Berg G (2009). Plant–microbe interactions promoting plant growth and health: perspectives for controlled use of microorganisms in agriculture. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 84:11-18.

Bertin C, Yang X, Weston AL (2003). The role of root exudates and allelochemicals in the rhizosphere. Plant and Soil 256:67-83.

Bjelić M, Nešić Lj, Ćirić V (2014). Praktikum iz pedologije. Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Poljoprivredni fakultet. [Practicum of pedology. University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture].

Bojovic R, Popović V, Ikanović J, Živanović Lj, Rakaščan N, Popović S, Ugrenović V, Simić D (2019). Morphological characterization of sweet sorghum genotypes across environments. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 29(3):721-729.

Chen G, Zhu H, Zhang Y (2003). Soil microbial activities and carbon and nitrogen fixation. Research in Microbiology 154:393-398.

Cherr CM, Scholberg JMS, McSorley R (2006). Green manure approaches to crop production: A synthesis. Agronomy Journal 98:302-319.

Compant S, Samad A, Faist H, Sessistsch A (2019). A review on the plant microbiome: Ecology, functions, and emerging trends in microbial application. Journal of Advanced Research 19:29-37.

Cordovez V, Dini-Androete F, Carrion JV, Raaijmakers MJ (2019). Ecology and evolution of plant microbiomes. Annual Review of Microbiology 8(73):69-88.

Cvijanović G (2002). Uticaj diazotrofa na prinos i mikrobiološku aktivnost u zemljištu kod kukuruza, pšenice i soje. Doktorska diseratacija. Poljoprivredni fakultet Novi Sad. Univerzitet u Novom Sadu. [Influence of diazotr of on yield and microbiological activity in soil in maize, wheat and soybeans, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture Novi Sad, University of Novi Sad].

Cvijanović G, Dozet G, Djukić V, Đorđević S, Puzić G (2012). Microbial activity of soil during the inoculation of soya bean with symbiotic and free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria. African Journal of Biotechnology 11(3):590-597. https:///

De Vita P, Di Paolo E, Fecondo G, Di Fonzo N, Pisante M (2007a). No-tillage and conventional tillage effects on durum wheat yield, grain quality and soil moisture content in southern Italy. Soil and Tillage Research 921(2):69-78.

Dennis PG, Miller JA, Hirsch RP (2010). Are root exudates more important than other sources of rhizodeposits in structuring rhizosphere bacterial communities. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 72:313-327.

Dobbelaere S, Vanderleyden J, Okon Y (2003). Plant growth–promoting effects of diazotrophs in therhizosphere. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 22(2):107-149.

Fließbach A, Oberholzer HR, Gunst L, Mäder P, Fliessbach (2007). Soil organic matter and biological soil quality indicators after 21 years of organic and conventional farming. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 118: 273-284.

Hayat R, Ali S, Amara, Khalid, R, Ahmed I (2010). Soil beneficial bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion: a review. Annals of Microbiology 60:579-598.

Islam KR, Wright SR (2005). Microbial communities. Encyclopedia of Soil Science, Taylor & Francis.

Jarak M, Čolo J (2007). Soil Microbiology. University of Novi Sad. Faculty of Agriculture. Novi Sad.

Jarak M, Hajnal T (2006). Total number of microorganisms, number of fungi and Azotobacter in compacted and noncompacted soil. Tractors and Power Machines 11(5):37-40.

Jarak M, Milošević N, Milić V, Mrkovački N, Đurić S, Marinković J (2005). Mikrobiološka aktivnost - pokazatelj plodnosti i degradacije zemljišta [Microbiological activity – indicator of fertility and land degradation]. Ekonomika Poljoprivrede 52(4):483-493.

Kolarić L, Popović V, Živanović L, Ljubičić N, Stevanović P, Šarčević Todosijević Lj, Simić D, Ikanović J (2021). Buckwheat yield traits response as influenced by row spacing, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium management. Agronomy 11:2371.

Kresović MM, Raičević V (2004). Mikrobiološka aktivnost u zemljištu pod pašnjakom. Zemljište i biljka. [Microbiological activity in soil under pasture]. Soil and Plant 53(1):71-77.

Lakić Ž, Predić T, Đurđić I, Popović V (2020). Recultivation of degraded soil due to mining activity without adding organic layers of soil using аlfalfa and mixtures of grass legumes. Agriculture and Forestry 66(4):223-237.

Li Y, Pan F, Yao H (2019). Response of symbiotic and asymbiotic nitrogen-fixing microorganisms to nitrogen fertilizer application. Journal of Soil and Sediments 19:1948-1958.

Ljubičić N, Popović V, Ćirić V, Kostić M, Ivošević B, Popović D, Pandžić M, El Musafah Seddiq, Janković S (2021). Multivariate interaction analysis of winter wheat grown in environment of limited soil conditions. Plants–Basel. 10(3):604.

Lupwayi NZ, Grant CA, Soon YK, Clayton GW, Bittman S, Malhi SS, Zebarth BJ (2010). Soil microbial community response to controlled-release urea fertilizer under zero tillage and conventional tillage. Applied Soil Ecology 45(3):254-261.

Marinković J, Milošević N, Sekulić P, Tintor B (2010). Microbiological properties of soil in oil refineries. XVIII International Scientific and professional meeting “Ecological Truth” Eco-Ist’ 10. Spa Junaković. Apatin. R. Srbija Proceedings. pp 414-419.

Marinković J, Ninkov J, Tintor B, Bjelić D, Vasin J, Cvijanović G (2015). Mikrobiološke karakteristike zemljišta pod parkovima i pored frekventnih saobraćajnica Novog Sada. Naučni-stručni skup “Održivo korišćenje zemljišta”. Novi Sad. Institut za ratarstvo i povrtarstvo. [Microbiological characteristics of land under parks and in frequent roads of Novi Sad. Scientific and professional conference "Sustainable land use". Novi Sad. Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops. Thematic proceedings pp 75-82].

Milošević N (2008). Microorganisms – bioindicators of health/soil quality. Proceedings Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops. Novi Sad 45(1):205-215.

Milošević N, Tintor B, Dozet D, Cvijanović G (2007). Microbiological properties of soils in natural grasslands. Proceedings of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops 44(1):541-546.

Mitić K, Stokić M, Stupar V, Živković Z, Sekulić T, Stojićević D (2021). Sistematska kontrola plodnosti zemljišta u 2017.godini na teritoriji braničevskog okruga. Šesti naučno-stručni skup Politehnika, Beograd, pp 825-829. [Systematic control of soil fertility in 2017 in the territory of braničevo district. Sixth scientific and professional conference Polytechnics, Belgrade, 825-829].

Mrkovački N, Jarak M, Đalović I, Jocković Đ (2012). Importance of PGPR application and its effect on microbial activity in maize rhizosphere. Farming and Vegetable Crops 49(3):335-344.

Pantigoso H, Newberg D, Vivanco J (2022). The rhizosphere microbiome: Plant-microbial interactions for resource acquisition. Journal of Applied Microbiology 133(5):2864-2876.

Pochon J, Tardieux (1962). Techniques d’analyse en microbiologie du sol. Éditions de la Tourelle, St. Mandé (Seine), Paris, France.

Popović V, Glamočlija Đ, Malešević M, Ikanović J, Dražić G, Spasić M, Stanković S (2011). Genotype specificity in nitrogen nutrition of malting barley. Genetika, Belgrade 43(1):197-204.

Popovic V, Ljubičić N, Kostić M, Radulović M, Blagojević D, Ugrenovic V, Popovic D, Ivosevic B (2020a). Genotype x environment interaction for wheat yield traits suitable for selection in different seed priming conditions. Plants 9(12):1804;

Popović V, Vučković S, Jovović Z, Ljubičić N, Kostić M, Rakaščan N, Glamočlija-Mladenović M, Ikanović J (2020b). Genotype by year interaction effects on soybean morpho-productive traits and biogas production. Genetika Belgrade 52(3):1055-1073.

Popovic V, Tatic M, Sikora V, Ikanovic J, Drazic G, Djukic V, … Stevanovic P (2016). Variability of Yield and chemical composition in soybean genotypes grown under different agroecological conditions of Serbia. Romanian Agricultural Research 33:29-39.

Rasulić N, Delić D, Stajković-Srbinović O, Buntić A, Kuzmanović Đ, Knežević M, Sikirić B (2021). Microbiological and basic agrochemical properties of Eutric Cambisols in western and southwestern Serbia. Land and Plant 70(2):1-9.

Roane TH, Pepper IL, Gentry T (2015). Microorganisms and metal pollutants. Environmental Microbiology (Third edition), Academic Press pp 415-439.

Roljević Nikolić MS, Dolijanović, KŽ, Kovačević ĐD, Oljača IS, Majstorović JH (2022). Soil biogenicity in the rhizosphere of different wheat genotypes under the impact of fertilization treatment. Journal of Agricultural Sciences Belgrade 67(4):367-380.

Sarić Z (1989). Praktikum iz mikrobiologije. Naučna knjiga. Beograd. [Practicum of microbiology. Scientific book. Belgrade].

Sastre J, Sahuquillo A, Vidal M, Rauret G (2002). Determination of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in 343 environmental samples: microwave-assisted total digestion versus aqua regia and nitric acid extraction. Analytica Chimica Acta 462(1):59-72.

Sieghardt M, Mursch-Radlgruber E, Paoletti E, Couenberg E, Dimitrakopoulus A, Rego F, Hatzistathis A, Barfoed Randrupt T (2005). The abiotic urban environment: impact of urban growing conditions on urban vegetation. In: Konijnendijk CC, Nilsson K (Eds). Urban Forests and Trees: A Reference Book. Springer Verlag, pp 281-283.

Sivojiene D, Kacergius A, Baksiene E, Maseviciene A, Zickiene L (2021). The influence of organic fertilizers on the abundance of soil microorganism communities, agrochemical indicators, and yield in East Lithuanian light soils. Plants 10(12):2648.

Stokić M, Živković Z, Stojićević D, Saulić M, Sekulić T, Stupar V (2022). Substitution Acidity, Phosphorus and Potassium Content in the Land of the Braničevo District in the Republic of Serbia. XIII International Scientific Agriculture Symposium “Agrosym 2022”, Jahorina, Faculty of Agriculture, East Sarajevo. Book of Proceedings. pp 841-846.

Tintor B, Milošević N, Marinković J, Pucarević M (2008). Microbiological properties of agricultural land in addition to frequent roads and industrial zones. Proceedings Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad 45(2):225-232.

Van Elsas D, Jansson JK, Trevors JT (2007). Modern Soil Microbiology. Second Edition, CRC Press.

Wei G, Chen W, Zhu W, Chen C, Young PW, Bontemps C (2009). Invasive Robinia pseudoacacia in China is nodulated by Mesorhizobium and Sinorhizobium species that share similar nodulation genes with native American symbionts. FEMS Microbiology and Ecology 68:320-328.

Welbaum G, Sturz AV, Dong Z, Nowak J (2004). Fertilizing soil microorganisms to improve productivity of agroecosystems. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 23:175-193.

Wilhelm J, Johnson MF, Karlen L, David T (2007). Corn stover to sustain soil organic further constrains biomass supply. Agronomy Journal 99:1665-1667.

Xu X, Thornton PE, Post WM (2013). A global analysis of soil microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in terrestrial ecosystems. Global Ecology and Biogeography 22:737-749.



How to Cite

SEKULIĆ, T., STUPAR, V., STEVANOVIĆ, A., ŽIVKOVIĆ, Z., SAULIĆ, M., BLAŽIĆ, M., & POPOVIĆ, V. (2023). Biodiversity of microbial populations as the indicator of biogenicity of soil under ashes and agricultural soil . Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 51(1), 13115.



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha51113115

Most read articles by the same author(s)