Determination by UHPLC – UV – MS of polyphenol content of Amaranthus retroflexus


  • Aida P. SĂRĂCIN University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, 200349, Craiova (RO)
  • Andrei BIȚĂ University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, 200349, Craiova (RO)
  • Ioan A. SĂRĂCIN University of Craiova, Faculty of Agronomy, 19 Libertatii Str., Craiova, Dolj County (RO)
  • Monica D. BÎCĂ “Constantin Brâncusi” University, Faculty of Medical and Behavioral Sciences, 210135, Târgu Jiu (RO)
  • Emilia CONSTANTINESCU University of Craiova, Faculty of Agronomy, 19 Libertatii Str., Craiova, Dolj County (RO)
  • Larisa-Marina-Elisabeth CHIRIGIU “Constantin Brâncusi” University, Faculty of Medical and Behavioral Sciences, 210135, Târgu Jiu (RO)
  • Ștefania E. TĂNASIE University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, 200349, Craiova (RO)



Amaranhus retroflexus, gastrointestinal disorders, flavonoids, UHPLC–UV–MS


Having a very large area globally, the genus Amaranthus has been known since ancient times and used as a medicinal plant used in the treatment of various ailments. For the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, the main constituents considered active are compounds from the polyphenol class. In order to identify and quantify some of these compounds, this paper briefly presents a UHPLC–UV–MS analysis study of polyphenolic compounds from Amaranthus retroflexus. Through our study we identified a high concentration of rutin. Thus, if rutin is intended to be used in medical practice, only the leaves will be used, the rest of the plant would produce an unwanted dilution. In addition, C₁₆H₁₈O₉, C₉H₈O₄, C7H6O4, C9H8O3 and C10H10O4 were identified. It has been observed that the leaves contain flavonoids in a higher amount than other parts of the plant. Through our study, we contributed to establishing the working parameters necessary to perform the analyses. For the first time, we have indicated the organs with the highest content of flavonoids, from the composition of the plants in the Oltenia area, Romania. For medical practice, the results obtained by us can represent important milestones in the production of pharmaceutical preparations.


Amoli JS, Sadighara P, Barin A, Yazdani A, Satari S (2009). Biological screening of Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae). Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 19:617-620.

AOAC (1990). Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC. 15th ed. Arlington, Virginia: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.

Casteel SW, Johnson GC, Miller MA, Chudomelka HJ, Cupps DE, Haskins HE, Gosser HS (1994). Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed) poisoning in cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 204(7):1068-1070.

Chirigiu L, Bubulica MV, Averis LM (2012). Investigations of three phytopharmaceutical products from Caprifoliaceae family using GC-MS and LC-MS. Revista de Chimie, Bucharest 63:764-767.

Ciocârlan V, Berca M, Chirilă C, Coste I, Popescu Gh (2004). Romanian vegetal flora. Editura Ceres, București, pp 133-134.

Dinu M, Anghel AI, Olaru OT, Şeremet OC, Calalb T, Cojocaru-Toma M, ... Ancuceanu R (2017). Toxicity investigation of an extract of Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae) leaves. Farmacia 65(2):289-294.

Elias TS, Dykeman PA (2009). Edible wild plants: a North American field guide to over 200 natural foods. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.

EPA (1980). Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Human and Environmental Samples. A Compilation of Methods Selected for Use in Pesticide Monitoring Programs. 600/8- 80-038. Health Effects Research Laboratory (MD-69). Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711.

Escudero NL, Albarracin G, Fernández S, De Arellano LM, Mucciarelli S (1999). Nutrient and antinutrient composition of Amaranthus muricatus. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 54:327-336.

Fox J, Weisberg S (2011). An {R} companion to applied regression. Second Edition. Sage, Thousand Oaks CA.

Hermann PL (1903). Some weeds of Iowa. Experiment Station, Iowa State College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts, pp 470.

Jacobs MC (1973). The Chemical Analysis of Foods and Food Products. New York: Krieger Publishing Co., Inc. pp 34.

Kerr LA, Kelch WJ (1998). Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) toxicosis in cattle. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 40(4):216-218.

Kongdang P, Dukaew N, Pruksakorn D, Koonrungsesomboon N (2021). Biochemistry of Amaranthus polyphenols and their potential benefits on gut ecosystem: A comprehensive review of the literature. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 281:114547.

Prosky L, Asp NG, Schweizer TF, Devries JW, Furda I (1988). Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fiber in foods and food products: interlaboratory study. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists 71(5):1017-1023.

Robu S, Chesaru BI, Diaconu C, Dumitriu Buzia O, Tutunaru D, Stanescu U, Lisa EL (2016). Lavandula hybrida: microscopic characterization and the evaluation of essential oil. Farmacia 64 (6):922-932.

Saravanan G, Ponmurugan P, Sathiyavathi M, Vadivukkarasi S, Sengottuvelu S (2013). Cardioprotective activity of Amaranthus viridis Linn: Effect on serum marker enzymes, cardiac troponin and antioxidant system in experimental myocardial infarcted rats. International Journal of Cardiology 165:494-498.

Sarker U, Iqbal MA, Hossain MN, Oba S, Ercisli S, Muresan CC, Marc RA (2022). Colorant pigments, nutrients, bioactive components, and antiradical potential of danta leaves (Amaranthus lividus). Antioxidants 11(6):1206.

Socea LI, Socea B, Saramet G, Barbuceanu SF, Draghici C, Constantin VD, Olaru OT (2015). Synthesis and cytotoxicity evaluation of new 5H-dibenzo [a, d][7] annulen-5-yl acetylhydrazones. Revista de Chimie 66(8):1122-1127.

Stansbie DAVID, Brownsey RW, Crettaz MARCO, Denton RM (1976). Acute effects in vivo of anti-insulin serum on rates of fatty acid synthesis and activities of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of fed rats. Biochemical Journal 160(2):413-416.

Stuffins CB (1967). The determination of phosphate and calcium in feeding stuff. Analysts 92:107-113. DOI

Tehrani M, Sankian M, Assarehzadegan MA, Falak R, Jabbari F, Varasteh A (2010). Immunochemical characterization of Amaranthus retroflexus pollen extract: extensive cross-reactive allergenic components among the four species of Amaranthaceae/ Chenopodiaceae. Iran Journal of Allergy and Asthma Immunology 9(2):87-95.

Tehrani M, Sankian M, Assarehzadegan MA, Falak R, Noorbakhsh R, Moghadam M, ... Varasteh A (2011). Identification of a new allergen from Amaranthus retroflexus pollen, Ama r 2. Allergology International 60(3):309-316.

Terekhina TA, Nochevnaya AV, Ovcharova NV, Lapshina IA (2021). Weed species composition of Agrophytocenoses in Altai Krai. Acta Biologica Sibirica 7:93-102.

Tomsone L, Kruma Z, Galoburda R, Dimins F, Kreicbergs V (2013). Influence of technological processes on the phenol content and antioxidant properties of horseradish roots (Armoracia rusticana L.). In: 2nd International conference on Nutrition and Food Sciences, IPCBEE 53:6-10.

Torres MB, Kommers GD, Dantas AF, De Barros CL (1997). Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) poisoning of cattle in southern Brazil. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 39(2):94-96.

Welcher FJ (1966). Standard Methods of Chemical Analysis. In: Van Nostrand D (Ed). Instrumental Analysis. 6th ed. New Jersey.

Würtzen PA, Nelson HS, Løwenstein H, Ipsen H (1995) Characterization of Chenopodiales (Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Kochia scoparia, Salsola pestifer) pollen allergens. Allergy 50(6):489-497.

Zeashan H, Amresh G, Singh S, Rao CV (2008). Hepatoprotective activity of Amaranthus spinosus in experimental animals. Food and Chemical Toxicology 46(11):3417-3421.



How to Cite

SĂRĂCIN, A. P., BIȚĂ, A., SĂRĂCIN, I. A., BÎCĂ, M. D., CONSTANTINESCU, E., CHIRIGIU, L.-M.-E., & TĂNASIE, Ștefania E. (2023). Determination by UHPLC – UV – MS of polyphenol content of Amaranthus retroflexus. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 51(1), 13102.



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha51113102