Changes on mutant pot chrysanthemums (Dendranthema × grandiflora Tzelev.)


  • Gulden HASPOLAT Aegean Agricultural Research Institute, Mail Box: 9, 35660, Menemen, Izmir (TR)



breeding, gamma irradiation, in vitro, mutation frequency, variation


Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema x grandiflora Tzvelev) is one of the most important ornamental plants in the world that has the richest mutant varieties with numerous colors. The objective of this study is to determine the effective mutagen dose (EMD50) for creating variations by gamma irradiation. It is aimed to get a mutagenesis protocol that could develop new mutants in pot chrysanthemums. To determine the EMD50, rooted cuttings of brownish-red color ‘Brandevil’ variety were irradiated by gamma radiation at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 Gray (Gy) doses. According to the shoot lengths, EMD50 was calculated as 27 Gy. The mutation frequency was calculated as 4.8%. Some changes were observed for flower numbers per plant, plant heights and widths, shapes and colors of both flowers and leaves. The color changes varied from brownish-red to yellow and orange. Two different colors appeared in the same pot at some genotypes as well as form changes of flowers. The similarity of the mutants was determined by the hierarchical cluster dendrogram involving five groups. Various colors were obtained for leaves and flowers. Remarkable mutations of the selected mutants were multiplied by tissue culture.


Ahloowalia BS and Maluszynski M (2001). Induced mutations a new paradigm in plant breeding. Euphytica 118(2):167-173.

Anderson NO (2006). Chrysanthemum. In: Anderson NO (Ed). Flower Breeding and Genetics: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities for the 21st Century. Springer, Nederlands pp 389-437.

Anderson NO and Ascher PT (2004). Inheritance of seed set, germination and day neutrality / heat delay insensitivity of garden chrysanthemums (Dendranthema x grandiflora) under glasshouse and field conditions. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 129(4):509-516.

Banerji BK and Datta SK (2003). Tubular flower head mutation in chrysanthemum. Journal of Nuclear Agriculture and Biology 32(1):56-59.

Datta K (2014). Induced mutagenesis: basic knowledge for technological success. In: Tomlekova NB, Kozgar MI and Wani MR (Eds). Mutagenesis Exploring Genetic Diversity of Crops. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Nederlands.

Datta S K and Janakiram T (2015). Breeding and diversity in Chrysanthemum morifolium in India: A review. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 85(11):1379-1395.

Kazaz S, Karaguzel O, Kaya AS, Aydinsakir K, Erken K, Erken S, . . . Rastgeldi U (2013). Türkiye kesme çiçek sektörünün ürün desenlerine göre iller ve bölgeler düzeyindeki durumu [The state of the Turkey cut flower industry at the level of provinces and regions by product patterns]. V. Ornamental Plants Congress Book 1, Yalova, Turkey pp 276-282.

Kazaz S, Kilic T, Dogan E, Yalcin Mendi Y, Karaguzel O (2020). Süs bitkileri üretimde mevcut durum ve gelecek [Current situation and future in ornamental plant production]. IX. Turkey Agricultural Engineering Technical Congress Book, Ankara, Turkey pp 673-698.

Kornerup A, Wanscher JH and Pavey D (1978). Methuen handbook of colour. Methuen London Ltd., UK.

Kumari K, Dhatt KK, and Kapoor M (2013). Induced mutagenesis in Chrysanthemum morifolium variety ‘Otome pink’ through gamma irradiation. The Bioscan 8(4):1489-1492.

Kumari S, Dhiman SR, Gupta YC (2019). Advances in breeding of Chrysanthemum: A Review. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 8(08):1631-1643.

Kunter B, Bas M, Kantoglu Y, Burak M (2012). Mutation breeding of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) var. 0900 Ziraat. In: Shu QY, Forster BP, Nakagawa H (Eds). Plant Mutation Breeding and Biotechnology, CABI, England pp 453-459.

Lee JH, Chung YS, Joung YH, Han TH, Kang SY, Yoo YK, Lee GJ (2010). Induction of mutations for stem quality in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora) by using gamma-ray irradiation. Acta Horticulturae 855:177-182.

Mandal AKA, Chakrabarty D and Datta SK (2000). Application of in vitro techniques in mutation breeding of chrysanthemum. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 60:33-38.

Melsen K, van de Wouw M, Contreras R (2021). Mutation Breeding in Ornamentals, American Society of Horticultural Science. Mutation breeding in ornamentals 56(10):1154-1165.

Murashige T, Skoog FA (1962). A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tabacco tissue cultures. Physiologia Plantarum 15:473-497.

Nagatomi S (2001). New approaches for effective mutation induction in gamma field. JAERI-Conf 2001-003. In: Combined Effect of Irradiation Methods and Explant Sources on Mutation Induction in Chrysanthemum Tokai, Japan, pp 123-128.

Nagatomi S, Miyahira E, Degi K (2000). Induction of flower mutation comparing with chronic and acute gamma irradiation using tissue culture techniques in Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat Acta Horticulturae 508:69-74.

Patil UH, Deshmukh GN, Kazi NA (2015). Mutation breeding in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora T.). Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies 3(4):25-27.

Patil UH, Karale AR, Katwate SM, Patil MS (2017). Mutation breeding in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora T.). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 6(6): 230-232.

Ronald WG and Ascher PD (1975). Self compatibility in garden Chrysanthemum: occurrence, inheritance and breeding potential. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 46:45-54.

Schum A (2003): Mutation breeding in ornamentals: An efficient breeding method. Acta Horticulturae 612:47-60.

Setia MK, Bala M, Singh S (2020). Induction of novel inflorescence traits in Chrysanthemum through 60Co gamma irradiation. International Journal of Radiation Biology 96(10):1309-1316.

Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Zandi P and Cheng Q (2019). A review of chrysanthemum, the eastern queen in traditional Chinese medicine with healing power in modern pharmaceutical sciences. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 17(6):13355-13369.

Shu QY, Foster BP, Nakagawa H (2012). Plant Mutation Breeding and Biotechnology. Joint FAO/IAEA 608. Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Austria; CAB International, United Kingdom.

Singh M, Bala M (2015). Induction of mutation in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum Tzvelev.) cultivar Bindiya through gamma irradiation. Indian Journal of Horticulture 72(3):376-381.

Song X, Xu Y, Gao K. (2020). High-density genetic map construction and identification of loci controlling flower-type traits in Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium Ramat.). Horticulture Research 7:108.

Su J, Jiang J, Zhang F, Liu Y, Ding L, Chen S and Chen F (2019). Current achievements and future prospects in the genetic breeding of chrysanthemum: a review. Horticulture Research 6:109.

Van Harten AM (2002). Mutation breeding of vegetatively propagated ornamentals. In: Vainstein A (Ed). Breeding for ornamentals: Classical and molecular approaches. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Switzerland.

Yang Y, Wen C, Nan M, Zhao L (2015). Heterosis and genetic analysis of branching in cut-flower chrysanthemums. Euphytica 205:915-925.

Zalewska M, Miler N, Tymoszuk A, Drzewiecka B, Winiecki J (2010). Results of mutation breeding activity on Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitam. in Poland. Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities 13(4):27-35.

Zhang M, Huang H, Wang Q, Dai S (2018). Cross breeding new cultivars of early-flowering multiflora Chrysanthemum based on mathematical analysis. American Society of Horticultural Sciences 53(4):421-426.

Zhao H (2011). Studies on the origin of garden chrysanthemum by morphological calassification. In: Qiyuan J (Ed). The origin of garden chrysanthemum, China pp 289-300.

Zhao H, Chen F, Fang W (2006). Detection methods of pollen viability of Dendranthema. Journal of Zhejiang Forestry College 2006:04.

Zhenhua P, Shouhe J (1995). New Chrysanthemum varieties developed by radiation breeding and micropropagation. Acta Horticulturae 404:128-130.

Zhu WY, Zhang F, Chen SM, Xu LL, Wang L, Wang HB (2014). Intergeneric hybrids between Chrysanthemum morifolium Nannongxiaoli and Artemisia vulgaris Variegata show enhanced resistance against both aphids and Alternaria leaf spot. Euphytica 197:399-408.



How to Cite

HASPOLAT, G. (2022). Changes on mutant pot chrysanthemums (Dendranthema × grandiflora Tzelev.). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 50(4), 13002.



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha50313002