Effect of pre-harvest application of salicylic acid, potassium silicate, and calcium chloride, on storability and quality attributes of table grape


  • Adel M.R.A. ABDELAZIZ Central Laboratory of Organic Agriculture, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Giza (EG)
  • Samar A.M.A. SHAARAWI Fruit Handling Research Department, Horticulture Research Institute, ARC, Giza (EG)
  • Wael M. IBRAHIM Central Laboratory of Organic Agriculture, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Giza (EG)




‘ARRA18’, calcium chloride (CaCl2), cold storage, potassium silicate (K2SiO3), salicylic acid (SA)


Pre-harvest application of potassium silicate, calcium chloride and salicylic acid as spraying treatments is a promising strategy for the management of fruit quality and exhibits a high potential in controlling post-harvest losses of horticultural crops. The aim of this study was to investigate the storability of ‘ARAA18’ cultivar after some pre-harvest treatments that were applied during two consecutive growing seasons. The ‘ARRA 18’ table grape variety is one of the ‘ARRA’ group varieties that have been recently introduced to Egypt. Treatments were applied as foliar sprays at three different stages during the growing season before harvest. The plants were sprayed with potassium silicate (K2SiO3), salicylic acid, and calcium chloride, while untreated vine trees sprayed with water served as control. Mature clusters were harvested, then placed in carton containers and stored in cold storage at 0±1 °C to study the storability of ‘ARRA18’. Records of physical and chemical quality parameters were taken at 7-day intervals. All treatments reduced weight loss, berry softening and decay incidence comparing to control under storage conditions. K2SiO3 generally showed the highest significant effect compared to other treatments and control. Hence, the use of (K2SiO3) at both applied concentrations and (SA) at 100 ppm, significantly proved to be the most effective treatments in keeping the overall quality of stored grapes.


Abbasi NA, Shafique M, Ali I, Qureshi AA, Hafiz IA (2020). Pre-harvest foliar application of calcium chloride improves berry quality and storage life of table grape cvs ‘perlette’ and ‘kings’s ruby’. Journal of Pure and Applied Agriculture 5(2):104-115.

Abdou NM, El-Saadony FMA, Roby MHH, Mahdy HAA, El-Shehawi AM, Elseehy, MM, … AbouSreea AIB (2022). Foliar spray of potassium silicate, aloe extract composite and their effect on growth and yielding capacity of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L) under water deficit stress conditions. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. https://doi org/10 1016/j sjbs 2022 02 033

Adel A, Awad MA (2013). Effect of pre-harvest calcium chloride and ethanol spray on quality of 'El-Bayadi' table grapes during storage. Vitis - Journal of Grapevine Research 52:61-67.

Aguayo E, Jansasithorn R, Kader A (2012). Effects of calcium chloride dip and 1-methylcyclopropene on quality changes in arils from stored pomegranates. in: Melgarejo P, Valero D (Eds). II International Symposium on the Pomegranate Zaragoza CIHEAM/Universidad Miguel Hernández, pp 195-199.

Amborabe BE, Lessard PF, Chollet, JF, Roblin G (2002). Antifungal effects of salicylic acid and other benzoic acid derivatives towards Eutypa lata: structure–activity relationship. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 40:1051-1060. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0981-9428(02)01470-5

Amiri EM, Fallahi E, Safari G (2009). Effects of preharvest calcium sprays on yield, quality and mineral nutrient concentrations of ‘Asgari’ table grape. International Journal of Fruit Science 9(3):294-304. https://doi.org/10.1080/15538360903241377

Arendse E, Fawole O, Opara U (2014). Effects of postharvest storage conditions on phytochemical and radical-scavenging activity of pomegranate fruit (cv Wonderful). Scientia Horticulturae 169:125-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2014.02.012

Asghari M, Ahadi L, Riaie S (2013). Effect of salicylic acid and edible coating-based Aloe vera gel treatment on storage life and postharvest quality of grape (Vitis vinifera L cv Gizel Uzum). International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences 5:2890-2898.

Asghari M, Aghdam MS (2010). Impact of salicylic acid on post-harvest physiology of horticultural crops. Trends in Food Science and Technology 21:502-509. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2010.07.009

Ashour N (2000). Effect of environmental factors calcium and potassium fertilization on yield and quality of apples. Ph D Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, pp 152.

Babalar M, Asghari M, Talaei A, Khosroshahi A (2007). Effect of pre- and postharvest salicylic acid treatment on ethylene production, fungal decay and overall quality of Selva strawberry fruit. Food Chemistry 105:449-453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.03.021

Bakshi P, Masoudi FA, Chauhan GS, and Shah TA (2005). Role of calcium in postharvest life of temperate fruits: A review. Journal of Food Science and Technology-Mysore 42:1-8.

Ball JA (1977). Evaluation of lipid-based edible coatings for their ability to preserve postharvest quality of green bell pepper. M Sc thesis Blacksburg, Virginia pp 89.

Barker AV, Pilbeam DJ (2015). Handbook of Plant Nutrition. 2 ed. Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida, pp 773.

Bassiony SS, Abd El-Aziz MH, Fahmy HM (2018). Effect of foliar application of putrescine and salicylic acid on yield, fruit quality and storability of "flame seedless" grape (Vitis vinifera L). Journal of Plant Production Mansoura University 9(12):1203-1214. https://doi.org/10.36632/mejas/2019.9.4.16

Beckers GJM, Spoel SH (2006). Fine-tuning plant defence signalling: salicylate versus jasmonate. Plant Biology (Stuttg) 8(1):1-10. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-872705

Bhavya HK (2010). Effect of foliar silicic acid and boron on Bengaluru blue grapes, MSc Thesis, University of Agricultural Science, Bengaluru pp 95.

Bowen P, Menzies, J Ehret D (1992). Soluble silicon sprays inhibit powdery mildew development on grape leaves Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 117:906-912. https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.117.6.906

Buescher RW, Hobson GE (1982). Role of calcium and chelating agents in regulating the degradation of tomato fruit tissue by polygalacharonase. Journal of Food Biochemistry 6:78-84. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4514.1982.tb00682.x

Caleb OJ, Mahajan PV, Al-Said FAJ, Opara UL (2013). Modified atmosphere packaging technology of fresh and fresh-cut produce and the microbial consequences. A review. Food and Bioprocess Technology 6:303-329. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-012-0932-4

Caleb OJ, Opara UL, Pramod V M, Manley M, Rena M, Mokwena L, Tredouxe AGJ (2013). Effect of modified atmosphere packaging and storage temperature on volatile composition and postharvest life of minimally processed pomegranate arils (cvs ‘Acco’ and ‘Herskawitz’). Postharvest Biology and Technology 79:54-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2013.01.006

Chan Z, Tian S (2006). Induction of H2O2–metabolizing enzymes and total protein synthesis by antagonist and salicylic acid in harvested sweet cherry fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology 39:314-320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2005.10.009

Cirami RM, Cameron IJ and Hedberg PR (1992) Harvesting and handling of table grapes. In: Viticulture -Practices. Adelaide: Wine Title 2:359-369.

Conway WS, Sams CE, Brown GA, Beavers WS, Tobias, RB, Kennedy LS (1994a). Pilot test for the commercial use of postharvest pressure infiltration of calcium into apples to maintain fruit quality in storage. HortTechnology 4:239-243. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH.4.3.239

Conway WS, Sams CE, Wang CY, Abbott JA (1994b). Additive effects of postharvest calcium and heat treatment on reducing decay and maintaining quality in apples. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 119:49-53. https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.119.1.49

Cupta OP, Jinal PC, Singh SP (1980). Effect of pre harvest spray of calcium nitrate on the on the storage behavior of grape cv ‘Perlette’. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research 10:204-206.

Currie HA, Perry CC (2007). Silica in plants: biological, biochemical and chemical studies. Annals of Botany 100:1383-1389. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcm247

Darshani W, David D (2015). Effect of silicon and potassium on tomato anthracnose and on the post-harvest quality of tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). Journal of the National Science Foundation Sri Lanka 43(3):273-280. http://doi.org/10.4038/jnsfsr.v43i3.7959

El Kholy MF, Mahmoud AA, Mehaisen SMA (2018). Impact of potassium silicate sprays on fruiting, fruit quality and fruit storability of loquat trees. Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research 7:139-153.

Fawole OA, Opara UL (2013a). Effects of storage temperature and duration on physiological responses of pomegranate fruit. Industrial Crops and Products 47:300-309. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.03.028

Fawole OA, Opara UL, (2013b). Harvest discrimination of pomegranate fruit: postharvest quality changes and relationships between instrumental and sensory attributes during shelf-life Journal of Food Science 78:1264-1272. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.12176

Gaffney T, Friedrich L, Vernooij B, Negrotto D, Nye G, Uknes S, … Ryals J (1993) Requirement of salicylic acid for the induction of systemic acquired resistance. Science 261:754-756. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.261.5122.754

García-Viguera C, Zafrilla P, Artés F, Romero F, Abellán P, Tomás-Barberán F (1998). Colour and anthocyanin stability of red raspberry jam. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 78:565-573. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199812)78:4<565::AID-JSFA154>3.0.CO;2-P

Gerasopoulos D, Richardson DG (1999). Storage temperature and fruit calcium alter the sequence of ripening events of “de’ Anjou” pears. HortScience 34(2):316-318. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.34.2.316

Hanumanthaiah MR, Kulapatihipparagi RC, Vijendrakumar DM, Renuka K, Kumar K, Santhosha KV (2015). Effect of soil and foliar application of silicon on fruit quality parameters of banana cv Neypoovan under hill zone. Plant Archives 15(1):221-224.

Hsia CL, Luh BS, Chichester CO (1965). Anthocyanins in freestone peaches. Journal of Food Science 30:5-12. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1965.tb00253.x

Jia JX, Cai DL, Liu ZM (2011). New progress in silicon improvement of quality of crops. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Silicon in Agriculture, September 13-18, Beijing, China, pp 77.

Kaluwa K, Bertling I, Bower JP, Tesfay SZ (2010). Silicon application effects on Hass avocado fruit physiology. Journal of South African Avocado Growers Association 33:44-47.

Khademi O, Zamani Z, Mostofi Y, Kalantari S, Ahmadi A (2012). Extending storability of persimmon fruit cv Karaj by postharvest application of salicylic acid. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 14:1067-1074.

Khademi Z, Erashadi A (2013). Postharvest application of salicylic acid improves storability of peach (Prunus persica cv Elberta) fruits. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences 5(6):651-655.

Khalifa MMA, Fetyan NAH, Abdel Magid, MS, El-Sheery NI (2017). Effectiveness of potassium silicate in suppression white rot disease and enhancement physiological resistance of onion plants, and its role on the soil microbial community. Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research 06(02):376-394.

Kirmani SN, Wani GM, Wani MS, Ghani MY, Abid M, Muzamil S, Raja H, Malik AR (2013). Effect of preharvest application of calcium chloride (CaCl2), Gibberlic acid (GA3) and Napthelenic acetic acid (NAA) on storage of plum (Prunus salicina L) cv Santa Rosa under ambient storage conditions. African Journal of Agricultural Research 8(9):812-818. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR12.1708

Levchenko S, Boyko V, Belash D, Cherviak S, Romanov A (2022). Postharvest treatments with calcium-based bioactivators to preserve table grape quality (Vitis vinifera L) cv Red Globe during storage. in E3S Web of Conferences, pp 02004 EDP Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202125402004

Li XL, Wang CR, Li XY, Yao YX, Hao YJ (2013). Modifications of Kyoho grape berry quality under long-term NaCl treatment. Food Chemistry 139:931-937. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.02.038

Liu Y, Liu J, Chen X, Liu Y, Di D (2010). Preparative separation and purification of lycopene from tomato skins extracts by macroporous adsorption resins. Food Chemistry 123(4):1027-1034. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.05.055

Loake G, Grant M (2007). Salicylic acid in plant defence-the players and protagonists. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 10:466-472. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2007.08.008

Malamy J, Carr JP, Klessig D, Raskin I (1990). Salicylic acid: a likely endogenous signal in the resistance response of tobacco to viral infection. Science (New York, NY) 250:1002-1004. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.250.4983.1002

Matto AK, Murata T, Pantastico EB, Chactin K, Ogata K, Phan CT (1975). Chemical changes during ripening and senescence. In: Pantastico EB (Ed). Postharvest Physiology, Handling and Utilisation of Subtropical Fruits and Vegetables. AVI Publishing Co Inc. Westport, Connecticut pp 103-127.

Mditshwa A, Bower JP, Bertling I, Mathaba N, Tesfay SZ (2013). The potential of postharvest silicon dips to regulate phenolics in citrus peel as a method to mitigate chilling injury in lemons. African Journal of Biotechnology 12:1482-1489. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB2012.2964

Meena VD, Dotaniya ML, Coumar VS, Rao AS (2014). A case for silicon fertilization to improve crop yields in tropical soils. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India, Section B: Biological Sciences 84(3):505-518. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40011-013-0270-y

Meunier M, Rogiers S, Gurr G, Siret R (2011). Grapevine vegetative growth and reproductive development in response to silicon supplementation. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Silicon in Agriculture September 13-18, pp 126.

Mohamed HM, Al- Kamar FA (2018). Effects of salicylic acid and potassium silicate foliar sprays on growth and yield of Valencia orange trees growing in soil influenced by salinity under El-Bustan condition. Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research 7(4):1473-1483.

Mohamed MAA, Abd El-khalek AF, Elmehrat, HG (2017). Improving mango fruits (Zibda cv) quality and storability by preharvest application with potassium silicate, chitosan and calcium chloride. Egyptian Journal of Horticulture 44(1):17-32.

Oogaki C, Wang HG, Gemma H (1988). Physiological and biochemical characteristics and keeping qualities of temperate fruits during chilled storage. In III International Workshop on Temperate Zone Fruits in the Tropics and Subtropics 279, pp 541-558.

Peyro H, Mirjalili SA, Kavoosi B (2017). Effect of salicylic acid and Aloe Vera gel on postharvest quality of table grapes (Vitis vinifera). Trakia Journal of Sciences 2:154-159.

Poovaiah BW (1986). Role of calcium in prolonging storage life of fruits and vegetables. Food Technology 40(5):86-89.

Raja RHS, Bhat Z, Malik AR, Shafi RH (2015). Interrelationship between fruit quality and pre-harvest calcium chloride treatment on peach Cv ‘Shan-I-Punjab’. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Biotechnology 8(1):103-109.

Ranjbaran E, Sarikhani H, Wakana A, Bakhshi D (2011). Effect of salicylic acid on storage life and postharvest quality of grape (Vitis vinifera L cv Bidaneh Sefid). Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University 56(2):263-269. https://doi.org/10.5109/20319

Raskin I (1992). Salicylate, a new plant hormone. Plant Physiology 99:799-803. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.99.3.799

Rees DA (1975). Steriochemistry and binding behaviour of carbohydrate chains. In: Whelan WJ (Ed). Biochemistry of Carbohydrates MTP I. Butterworths, London.

Rodrigues FA, Datnoff LE (2007). Silicon and plant disease Switzerland. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10 1007/978-3-319-22930-0

Rodrigues FA, Duarte, HSS, Domiciano GP, Souza CA, Korndörfer GH, Zambolim L (2009). Foliar application of potassium silicate reduces the intensity of soybean rust. Australasian Plant Pathology 38:366-372. https://doi.org/10.1071/AP09010

Rodrigues FA, Resende RS, Dallagnol LJ, Datnoff LE (2015). Silicon potentiates host defense mechanisms against infection by plant pathogens. Rodrigues FA, Datnoff LE (Eds). Silicon and Plant Diseases. Cham, Springer pp 109-138.

Sayyari M, Babalar M, Kalantari S, Martínez-Romero D, Guillén F, Serrano M, Valero D (2011). Vapour treatments with methyl salicylate or methyl jasmonate alleviated chilling injury and enhanced antioxidant potential during postharvest storage of pomegranates. Food Chemistry 124:964-970. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.07.036

Schabl P, Gabler C, Kührer E, Wenzel, W (2020). Effects of silicon amendments on grapevine, soil and wine Plant, Soil and Environment 66:403-414. https://doi.org/10.17221/40/2020-PSE

Shaarawi SA, Salem AS, Elmaghraby IM, Abd El-Moniem EA (2016). Effect of salicylic acid, calcium chloride and calcium lactate applications on quality attributes of minimally-processed 'wonderful' pomegranate arils Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 44(2):508-517.

Shafiee M, Taghavi T, Babbler M (2010). Addition of salicylic acid to nutrient solution combined with postharvest treatments (hot water, salicylic acid, and calcium dipping) improved postharvest fruit quality of strawberry. Scientia Horticulturae 124:40-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2009.12.004

Singh RK, Afonso J, Nogueira M, Oliveira AA, Cosme F, Falco V (2020). Silicates of potassium and aluminium (kaolin), comparative foliar mitigation treatments and biochemical insight on grape berry quality in Vitis vinifera L (cv Touriga National and Touriga Franca). Biology (Basel) 9(3):58. https://doi org/10 3390/biology9030058

Snedecor GW, Cochran WG (1982). Statistical Methods. 7th Edition, Iowa State University Press, Towa, pp 511.

Srivastava MK, Dwivedi UN (2000). Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid. Plant Science 158:87-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9452(00)00304-6

Tarabih ME, EL-Eryan EE, EL-Metwally MA (2014). Physiological and pathological impacts of potassium silicate on storability of anna apple fruits. American Journal of Plant Physiology 9(2):52-67. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajpp.2014.52.67

Terry LA, Joyce DC (2004). Elicitors of induced disease resistance in postharvest horticulture crops: A brief review. Postharvest Biology and Technology 32:1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2003.09.016

Tesfay SZ, Bertling I, Bower JP (2011). Effects of postharvest potassium silicate application on phenolics and other anti-oxidant systems aligned to avocado fruit quality Postharvest Biology and Technology 60:92-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2010.12.011

Tripathi DK, Mishra S, Chauhan DK, Tiwari SP, Kumar C (2013). Typological and frequency based study of opaline silica (phytolith) deposition in two common Indian sorghum. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Sec B 83(1):97-104. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40011-012-0066-5

Wang L, Chen S, Kong W, Li S, Archbold DD (2006). Salicylic acid pre-treatment alleviates chilling injury and affects the antioxidant system and heat shock proteins of peaches during cold storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology 41:244-251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2006.04.010

Withy LM, Nguyen TT, Wrolstad RE, Heatherbell DA (1993). Storage changes in anthocyanin content of red raspberry juice concentrate Journal of Food Science 58:190-192. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1993.tb03241.x

Xu XB, Tian, SP (2008). Reducing oxidative stress in sweet cherry fruit by Pichia membranaefaciens: a possible mode of action against Penicillium expansum. Journal of Applied Microbiology 105:1170-1177. https://doi org/10 1111/j 1365-2672 2008 03846 x

Yao HJ, Tian SP (2005). Effect of pre- and post-harvest application of salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate on inducing disease resistance of sweet cherry fruit in storage Postharvest Biology Technology 35:253-262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2004.09.001

Zargar SM, Mahajan R, Bhat JA, Nazir M, Deshmukh R (2019). Role of silicon in plant stress tolerance: opportunities to achieve a sustainable cropping system. 3 Biotech 9(3):73. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-019-1613-z

Zhang Y, Chen K, Zhang S, Ferguson I (2003). The role of salicylic acid in postharvest ripening of kiwifruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology 28:67-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5214(02)00172-2



How to Cite

ABDELAZIZ, A. M., SHAARAWI, S. A., & IBRAHIM, W. M. (2022). Effect of pre-harvest application of salicylic acid, potassium silicate, and calcium chloride, on storability and quality attributes of table grape. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 50(4), 12940. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha50412940



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha50412940