Effects of prolonged water stress on biomass yield and nutrient uptake by aerial parts of mint (Mentha × piperita L.)


  • Seda ERDOĞAN BAYRAM Ege University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 35100 İzmir (TR)




aerial part, fresh herba, harvest, irrigation, macro-micro elements, mint


Mint (Mentha × piperita L.) is a medicinal and aromatic plant known for its high-water requirement. However, water stress is an important factor limiting vegetative development of this plant. Studying the growth, productivity, and nutrient uptake of this plant under various water stress levels is necessary to optimize its fertilization programs. In this study, the effects of different water stress levels and cutting times on the fresh biomass yields and the amounts of nutrient uptake of peppermint by different aerial parts were examined in two consecutive years. The field experiment was arranged as five irrigation treatments (125, 100, 75, 50 and 25% of full irrigation), during the season of maximum water demand (June-September), applied by drip irrigation. Results showed that at all cutting times in both years, the amounts of nutrient elements taken up by the different parts generally increased in parallel with increasing water stress, while fresh biomass yields decreased. However, this increase observed in nutrient element uptake was an increase relative to the dramatic decrease in the number of plants in severe stress conditions. The effect of long-term water stress on the nutrients taken up by different parts of the plant was mostly observed in Ca, Mg, N, Fe and Cu. As a result, in mint growing under Mediterranean conditions, despite the non-significant differences, in terms of the amounts of nutrient elements taken up by aerial parts, T75 treatment which provided 25% water saving compared to T100 could be recommended for one cut and one year cultivation in practice. Severe stress levels are not appropriate in mint growing was concluded.


Abdi G, Shokrpour M, Salami SA (2019). Essential oil composition at different plant growth development of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) under water deficit stress. Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants 22(2):431-440. https://doi.org/10.1080/0972060X.2019.1581095

Afsharmanesh GR, Heydarı-Sharıfabad H, Mazaheri D, Nourmohammadi G, Madani H (2009). Drought stress effect on nutrients absorption and concentration of Medicago sativa varieties. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science 14(1):181-193.

Akhondi M, Safarnejad A, Lahouti M (2006). Drought stress effect on prolin accumulation and mineral nutrients changes in alfaalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Journal of Sciences Technology of Agricultural and Natural Resources 10(1):156- 174.

Alizadeh O, Nadian HA (2010). Evaluation effect of water stress and nitrogen rates on amount of absorption some macro and micro elements in corn plant mycorrhizae and non-mycorrhizae. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 5(5):350-355.

Alva AK (2008). Water management and water uptake efficiency by potatoes: A review. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 54(1):53-68. https://doi.org/10.1080/03650340701615822

Ashraf M, Ashfaq M, Ashraf MY (2002). Effect of increased supply of potassium on growth and nutrient content in pearl millet under water stress. Biologia Plantarum 45(1):141-144. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015193700547

Baatour O, Kaddour R, Wannes WA, Lachaal M, Marzouk B (2010). Salt effects on the growth, mineral nutrition, essential oil yield and composition of marjoram (Origanum majorana). Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 32(1):45-51. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-009-0374-4

Chai Q, Gan Y, Zhao C, Xu HL, Waskom RM, Niu Y, Sıddique KH (2016). Regulated deficit irrigation for crop production under drought stress - A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 36(3):1-21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-015-0338-6

Corell M, Garcia MC, Contreras JI, Segura ML, Cermeño P (2012). Effect of water stress on Salvia officinalis L. bioproductivity and its bioelement concentrations. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 43(1-2):419-425. https://doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2012.641811

Croteau R, Felton M, Karp F, Kjonaas R (1981). Relationship of camphor biosynthesis to leaf development in sage (Salvia officinalis). Plant Physiology 67(4):820-824. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.67.4.820

De Carvalho IMMS (2005). Effects of water stress on the proximate composition and mineral content of seeds of two lupins (Lupinus albus and Lupinus mutabilis). Journal of Food Quality and Hazards Control 28(4):325-332. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4557.2005.00040.x

Fereres E, Soriano MA (2007). Deficit irrigation for reducing agricultural water use. Journal of Experimental Botany 58(2):147-159. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erl165

García-Caparrós P, Romero MJ, Llanderal A, Cermeño P, Lao MT, Segura ML (2019). Effects of drought stress on biomass, essential oil content, nutritional parameters, and costs of production in six Lamiaceae species. Water 11(3):573. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030573

Gupta S, Lakshmi AJ, Manjunath MN, Prakash J (2005). Analysis of nutrient and anti-nutrient content of underutilized green leafy vegetables. LWT - Food Science and Technology 38(4):339-345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2004.06.012

Hassan FAS, Bazaid S, Ali EF (2013). Effect of deficit irrigation on growth, yield and volatile oil content on Rosmarinus officinalis L. plant. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 1(3):12-21.

Heydari F, Zehtab SS, Javanshir A, Aliari H, Dadpour MR (2008). The effects of application microelements and plant density on yield and essential oil of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 24(39):1-9.

Hussein MM, Mahmoud SA, Taalab AS (2013). Yield and nutrient status of barley plant in response to foliar application of fertilizers under water deficit conditions. Research Journal of Applied Sciences 9(7):4388-4396.

İbrahim M, El-Samad F, Ashour AH, El-Sawy AM, Hikal M, Elkelish A, Abd El-Gawad H, Abou-El-yazıed A, Hozzein WN, Farag R (2020). Regulation of agronomic traits, nutrient uptake, osmolytes and antioxidants of maize as influenced by exogenous potassium silicate under deficit irrigation and semiarid conditions. Agronomy 10(8):1212. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10081212

Kaya C, Levent T, David H (2006). Effect of silicon and plant growth and mineral nutrition of maize grown under water stress conditions. Journal of Plant Nutrition 29(8):1469-1480. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904160600837238

Keshavarz‐Mirzamohammadi H, Tohidi‐Moghadam HR, Hosseini SJ (2021). Is there any relationship between agronomic traits, soil properties and essential oil profile of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) treated by fertiliser treatments and irrigation regimes?. Annals of Applied Biology 179(3):331-344. https://doi.org/10.1111/aab.12707

Khalid KA (2006). Influence of water stress on growth, essential oil, and chemical composition of herbs [Ocimum sp.]. International Agrophysics 20(4):289-296.

Khorasaninejad S, Mousavi A, Soltanloo H, Hemmati K, Khalighi A (2011). The effect of drought stress on growth parameters, essential oil yield and constituent of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). Journal of Medicinal Plant Research 5(22):5360-5365. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR.9001196

Kostrzewska MK, Jastrzębska M, Wanic M, Treder K (2017). Effect of a sowing regime and water conditions on nitrogen content and accumulation in the aerial biomass of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Journal of Elementology 22(2):607-616. http://dx.doi.org/10.5601/jelem.2016.21.4.1198

Kumar P, Mishra S, Malik A, Satya S (2012). Efficacy of Mentha × piperita and Mentha citrata essential oils against housefly, Musca domestica L. Industrial Crops and Products 39:106-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.02.021

Meskelu E, Mohammed M, Yimenu F, Derese Y (2014). Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) response to deficit irrigation. International Journal of Life-Sciences Scientific Research 1:22-30.

Misra A, Srivastava NK (2000). Influence of water stress on Japanese mint. Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants 7(1):51-58. https://doi.org/10.1300/J044v07n01_07

Mitchell AR, Yang CL (1998). Irrigation of peppermint for optimal yield. Soil Science Society of America Journal 62(5):1405-1409. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1998.03615995006200050037x

Mohammad M, Shibli R, Ajlouni M, Nimri L (1998). Tomato root and shoot responses to salt stress under different levels of phosphorus nutrition. Journal of Plant Nutrition 21(8):1667-1680. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904169809365512

Osuagwu GGE, Edeoga HO, Osuagwu AN (2010). The influence of water stress (drought) on the mineral and vitamin potential of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L). Resent Research in Science and Technology 2(2):27-33.

Pirzad A, Darvishzadeh R, Bernousi I, Hassani A, Sivritepe N (2012). Influence of water deficit on iron and zinc uptake by Matricaria chamomilla L. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 72(2):232-236.

Pushpangadan P, Tewari SK (2006). Peppermint. In: Peter KV (Ed). Handbook of Herbs and Spices. Woodhead Publishing Cambridge pp 460-481.

Said-Al Ahl HA, Sabra AS, Alataway A, Astatkie T, Mahmoud AA, Bloem E (2019). Biomass production and essential oil composition of Thymus vulgaris in response to water stress and harvest time. Journal of Essential Oil Research 31(1):63-68. https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2018.1518794

Sarajuoghi M, Abbaszadeh B, Ardakani MR (2014). Investigation morphological and physiological response of Thymus vulgaris L. to drought stress. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 5(2):486-492.

Sardans J, Peñuelas J (2008). Drought changes nutrient sources, content and stoichiometry in the bryophyte Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. growing in a Mediterranean forest. Journal of Bryology 30(1):59-65. https://doi.org/10.1179/174328208X281987

Sarhadi H, Daneshian J, Valadabadi SA, Heidari S, Afsharmanesh GhR (2016). Investigation on nutrients uptake of henna ecotypes under deficit irrigation and nitrogen. Desert 21(2):173-180. https://dx.doi.org/10.22059/jdesert.2016.60326

Shormin T, Khan MAH, Alamgir M (2009). Response of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and water stress on the growth and yield of Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L.). Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 44(1):137-145. https://doi.org/10.3329/bjsir.v44i1.2723

Singh R, Shushni MA, Belkheir A (2015). Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Mentha piperita L. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 8(3):322-328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2011.01.019

Srivastava NK, Luthra R (1991). Distribution of photosynthetically fixed 14CO2 into essential oil in relation to primary metabolites in developing peppermint (Mentha piperita) leaves. Plant Science 76(2):153-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-9452(91)90136-V

Stagnari F, Galieni A, Pisante M (2016). Drought stress effects on crop quality. In: Parvaiz A (Ed). Water stress and crop plants: a sustainable approach. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Amsterdam, pp 375-392.

TSMS (Turkish States Meteorological Service) (2020). Rainfall and Temperature Data.

Vandecasteele B, Debode J, Willekens K, Van Delm T (2018). Recycling of P and K in circular horticulture through compost application in sustainable growing media for fertigated strawberry cultivation. European Journal of Agronomy 96:131-145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2017.12.002

Yu X, Du X, Song L (2007). Effects of water stress on the growth and ecophysiology of seedlings of the Rhus typhina. Scientia Silvae Sinicae 43:57-61.

Zhang Y, Yi Z, Wei L, Kong L, Wang L (2018). Modified iron phosphate/polyvinyl alcohol composite film for controlled-release fertilisers. RSC Advances 8(32):18146-18152. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8RA01843J



How to Cite

ERDOĞAN BAYRAM, S. (2022). Effects of prolonged water stress on biomass yield and nutrient uptake by aerial parts of mint (Mentha × piperita L.). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 50(4), 12894. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha50412894



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha50412894