Anti-ulcer properties, cytokines, and apoptosis regulatory effects of Olea europaea leaves from Hail Province, Saudi Arabia


  • Rahamat UNISSA University of Hail, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, Hail, 81442 (SA)
  • Sivakumar S. MONI Jazan University, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Jazan, 45142 (SA)
  • Humera BANU University of Hail, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Department of Clinical Nutrition, Hail, 81442 (SA)
  • Sulafah S. ALRAHEF University of Hail, College of Pharmacy, Hail, 81442 (SA)
  • Sadeem S. ALRAHEF University of Hail, College of Pharmacy, Hail, 81442 (SA)
  • Taif K.M. ALENEZI University of Hail, College of Pharmacy, Hail, 81442 (SA)
  • Marwa H. ABDALLAH University of Hail, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, Hail, 81442; Zagazig University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Zagazig (EG)
  • Amr S. ABU LILA University of Hail, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, Hail, 81442; Zagazig University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Zagazig (EG)
  • Hemat EL-HORANY University of Hail, College of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Hail, 81442; Tanta University, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine (SA)
  • Amr S. ABOUZIED University of Hail, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Hail, 81442; National Organization for Drug Control and Research, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Giza (SA)
  • Siddig I. ABDELWAHAB Jazan University, Medical Research Center, Jazan, 45142 (SA)
  • Manal M.E. THAHA Jazan University, Substance Abuse and Toxicology Research Centre, Jazan, 45142 (SA)



anti-ulcer activity, apoptosis markers, cytokine network, olive leaves, raw powder


This study investigated the anti-ulcer properties of raw olive leaf powder (OLP) and its immunomodulatory potential through the cytokine network. The efficacy of OLP extract in treating stomach ulcers in rats in ethanol-induced models was examined using a single dosage (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) in groups 4, 5, and 6. The OLP demonstrated substantial anti-ulcer action even at 100 mg/kg. The activity was better at 400 mg/kg and almost equivalent to the conventional omeprazole treatment at 20 mg/kg in group 3. The cytokine network was studied in groups 1, 2, 3, and 6. The cytokine network was efficiently regulated by reducing the production of cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α. The levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were also lowered in groups 3 and 4 considerably at p < 0.05. It is interesting to note that the expression of IFN was greater in animals treated with OLP in group 4, as compared to animals treated with omeprazole in group 3, as well as animals from the disease control group 2, when analyzed at a significance level of p < 0.05. The results revealed that OLP has intriguing potential for anti-ulcer action, and possesses immunomodulatory capabilities to control inflammatory cytokines and apoptotic markers.


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How to Cite

UNISSA, R., MONI, S. S., BANU, H., ALRAHEF, S. S., ALRAHEF, S. S., ALENEZI, T. K., ABDALLAH, M. H., ABU LILA, A. S., EL-HORANY, H., ABOUZIED, A. S., ABDELWAHAB, S. I., & THAHA, M. M. (2022). Anti-ulcer properties, cytokines, and apoptosis regulatory effects of Olea europaea leaves from Hail Province, Saudi Arabia . Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 50(3), 12891.



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha50312891

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