Cytotoxicity and antiproliferative activity of essential oils from lemon, wild orange and petitgrain against MCF-7, HepG2 and HeLa cancer cells
Keywords:antimigration, apoptosis, Citrus aurantium, Citrus limon, Citrus sinensis, MTT assay
The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and biological properties of the citrus essential oils (EOs) derived from orange rinds (peels) of lemon (Citrus limon), wild orange (Citrus sinensis) from Brazil extracted by the cold pressed/expressed method, and leaves and twigs of petitgrain (Citrus aurantium) from Paraguay extracted by steam distillation. These food grade EOs were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity in breast, liver, and cervical cancer cells (MCF-7, HepG2 and HeLa) via MTT assay, antiproliferative activity via colony formation assay, and antimigratory activity via wound healing assay, and apoptosis via DNA fragmentation and morphology assessment. The major compounds found in lemon EO were D-limonene (66.75%), beta-pinene (12.82%), and gamma-terpinene (11.57%), totaling over 90% of the identified compounds. For wild orange, the only predominant compound was limonene (96.60%), and the rest, found in minor amounts, included alpha-pinene, bicyclohexane, beta-pinene, beta-myrcene, 3-carene, and o-cymene. For petitgrain EO, linalyl isobutyrate (51.76%) and linalool (26.86%) were mainly detected. Based on the MTT assay, petitgrain EO was the most effective against MCF-7, HepG2 and HeLa. However, wild orange EO was the most antiproliferative and antimigratory against all three cells using the anticolony formation assay and wound healing assay, respectively. The results showed that cell death is associated with the apoptotic process, with morphological hallmarks of apoptosis including membrane blebbing and DNA fragmentation. These findings imply that the three citrus EOs might be used as active components in functional food products for chemopreventive benefits.
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