Modelling plant morphometric parameters as predictors for successful cultivation of some medicinal Agastache species
Keywords:agronomic trait, correlation, field conditions, herba Agastache
Researches carrying evidence for various uses and bioactive principles of Agastache spp. are justifying the upscaling into cultivation of these medicinal species. But, hindrances in their cultivation exist due to the insufficient documentation of their biology under field conditions. Because productivity of these medicinal species (herba) is ensured by the combined contribution of plant agronomic traits, these are related to the feasibility of the crop and therefore, can be used as predictors for successful cultivation. The aim of this study was to evaluate comparatively four valuable Agastache species (A. mexicana, A. scrophulariifolia, A. foeniculum) and one cultivar (A. rugosa ‘After Eight’), in order to identify the favourability for cultivation in local conditions (Romania). Based on the structural indicators of plant morphology (plant height, shoot number, leaf number, leaf length and width, inflorescence length, verticillaster number and flower number), registered over the span of two years, were explored relationships and similarities as well as their implications in previsioning the phenotypic potential. The results showed that studied species acclimatized successfully and all agronomic parameters studied increased in values in the second year. The average plant height in second year (2020) was 109.8 cm and average inflorescences length 9.6 cm. Stable positive correlations between inflorescence length with plant height and shoot number were observed, while differences among species became pronounced as plants become established, evidenced by clearer distinction in the second year. Phenotypic potential in the absence of inputs enables the feasibility assessment for medicinal plants introduced for cultivation in new regions.
Ahmad KMS, Ahmad I (2019). Chapter 1 - Herbal medicine: current trends and future prospects. In: Ahmad Khan MS, Ahmad I, & Chattopadhyay D (Eds.). New Look to Phytomedicine. Academic Press, pp 3-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814619-4.00001-X
Anand S, Deighton M, Livanos G, Morrison PD, Pang ECK, Mantri N (2019a). Antimicrobial activity of Agastache honey and characterization of its bioactive compounds in comparison with important commercial honeys. Frontiers in Microbiology 10:263. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00263
Anand S, Deighton M, Livanos G, Pang ECK, Mantri N (2019b). Agastache honey has superior antifungal activity in comparison with important commercial honeys. Scientific Reports 9(1):18197. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-54679-w
Anand S, Pang E, Livanos G, Mantri N (2018). Characterization of physico-chemical properties and antioxidant capacities of bioactive honey produced from Australian grown Agastache rugosa and its correlation with colour and poly-phenol content. Molecules 23(1):108. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010108
Argyropoulos D (2019). EIP-AGRI Focus Group plant-based medicinal and cosmetic products. https://ec.europa.eu/eip/agriculture/sites/default/files/fg35_starting_paper_2019_en.pdf
Bielecka M, Zielińska S, Pencakowski B, Stafiniak M, Ślusarczyk S, Prescha A, Matkowski A (2019). Age-related variation of polyphenol content and expression of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes in Agastache rugosa. Industrial Crops Products 141:111743. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2019.111743
Cadar RL, Amuza A, Dumitras DE, Mihai M, Pocol CB (2021). Analysing clusters of consumers who use medicinal and aromatic plant products. Sustainability 13(15):8648. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158648
Carmona-Castro G, Estrada-Soto S, Arellano-García J, Arias-Duran L, Valencia-Díaz S, Perea-Arango I (2019). High accumulation of tilianin in in-vitro cultures of Agastache mexicana and its potential vasorelaxant action. Molecular Biology Reports 46(1):1107-1115. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-018-4570-4
Carović-Stanko K, Petek M, Grdiša M, Pintar J, Bedeković D, Herak Ćustić M, Satovic Z (2016). Medicinal plants of the family Lamiaceae as functional foods – a review. Czech Journal of Food Sciences 34(5):377-390. https://doi.org/10.17221/504/2015-CJFS
Carrillo-Galván G, Bye R, Eguiarte LE, Cristians S, Pérez-López P, Vergara-Silva F, Luna-Cavazos M (2020). Domestication of aromatic medicinal plants in Mexico: Agastache (Lamiaceae)-an ethnobotanical, morpho-physiological, and phytochemical analysis. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 16(1):22. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-020-00368-2
Choi S-K, Seo Y-N (1993). Studies on the germination physiology, growth and component analysis of Agastache rugosa KUNTZE. Korean Journal of Plant Resources 6(2):147-154.
Climate Cluj (2021). Temperature, climate graph, Climate table for Cluj - Climate-Data.org. (n.d.). Retrieved 2021 October 23 from https://en.climate-data.org/europe/romania/cluj-511/
Corrigan EE (2002). Agastache scrophulariifolia (Willd.) Kuntze. Purple giant hyssop: Conservation and research plant for New England. New England Wild Flower Society Framingham. MA. p. 1-22. Retrieved 2021 October 23 from https://www.nativeplanttrust.org/documents/25/Agastachescrophulariifolia.pdf
Criveanu H (2001). Agrometeorology. Risoprint.
Do JW, Noh SW, Bok GJ, Lee HJ, Lee JW, Park JS (2020). Selection of optimal varieties suitable for indoor cultivation considering the growth and functional content of Agastache species. Journal of Bio-Environment Control 29(2):202-208. https://doi.org/10.12791/KSBEC.2020.29.2.202
Duda M, Matei CI, Vârban DI, Muntean S, Moldovan C (2013). The results of cultivating the species Agastache foeniculum (Pursh) Kuntze at Jucu, CJ. Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. Agriculture 70(1):214-217. https://doi.org/10.15835/buasvmcn-agr:9787
EMEA (2006). Guideline on good agricultural and collection practice (GACP) for starting materials of herbal origin (Guideline EMEA/HMPC/246816/2005). European Medicines Agency.
Fuentes-Granados R, Widrlechner M, Wilson L (1998). An overview of Agastache research. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants 6:69-97. https://doi.org/10.1300/J044v06n01_09
González-Ramírez AE, González-Trujano ME, Hernandez-Leon A, Valle-Dorado MG, Carballo-Villalobos A, Orozco-Suárez S, … López-Muñoz F J (2021). Limonene from Agastache mexicana essential oil produces antinociceptive effects, gastrointestinal protection and improves experimental ulcerative colitis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 280:114462. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114462
Hammer Ø (2021). Past 4 - The Past of the Future software (4.08) [Computer software]. Natural History Museum. https://www.nhm.uio.no/english/research/infrastructure/past/index.html
Harrell Jr FE, Dupont C (2021). Hmisc: Harrell Miscellaneous (4.6-0) [Computer software]. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=Hmisc
Hernandez-Leon A, Moreno-Pérez GF, Martínez-Gordillo M, Aguirre-Hernández E, Valle-Dorado MG, Díaz-Reval MI, … Pellicer F (2021). Lamiaceae in Mexican species, a great but scarcely explored source of secondary metabolites with potential pharmacological effects in pain relief. Molecules 26:7632. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26247632
Hosseini B, Moharrami L (2014). The survey effect of BAP and TDZ on direct shoot regeneration from nodal explant of Agastache foeniculum. Journal of Crops Improvement 16(2):459-473. https://doi.org/10.22059/jci.2014.53055
Hwang J M; Lee M-H, Lee J-H, Lee J-H (2021). Agastache rugosa extract and its bioactive compound tilianin suppress adipogenesis and lipogenesis on 3T3-L1 cells. Applied Science 11:7679. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167679
Index Seminum - Hortus Agro-Botanicus Napocensis (2021). AcademicPress.
Ivanov I G, Vrancheva R Z, Petkova N T, Tumbarski Y, Dincheva I N, Badjakov I K (2019). Phytochemical compounds of anise hyssop (Agastache foeniculum) and antibacterial, antioxidant, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory properties of its essential oil. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 9(02):072-078. https://doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2019.90210
Jahani R, Hassani A, Samadi A (2018). Effect of foliar application of urea, aspartic acid and glutamic acid on growth, physiological and biochemical characteristics of Anise hyssop (Agastache foeniculum). Applied Soil Research 5(2):950107. Retrieved 2021 October 23 from http://asr.urmia.ac.ir/article_20518.html?lang=en
Jang TS, Moon HK, Hong SP (2015). Sex expression, population structure, and floral dimorphism in a gynodioecious herb, Agastache rugosa (Lamiaceae) in Korea. Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 215:23-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2015.06.004
Khorsandi O, Hassani A, Sefidkon F, Shirzad H, Khorsandi AR (2010). Effect of salinity (NaCl) on growth, yield, essential oil content and composition of Agastache foeniculum Kuntz. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research 26(3):438-451. https://doi.org/10.22092/ijmapr.2010.6807
Kim SJ, Park JE, Bok GJ, Kanth BK, Lam VP, Park JS (2018). High electrical conductivity of nutrient solution and application of methyl jasmonate promote phenylpropanoid production in hydroponically grown Agastache rugosa. Horticultural Science and Technology 36(6):841-852. https://doi.org/10.12972/kjhst.20180082
Kovalenko NA, Supichenko GN, Leontiev VN, Shutova AG (2019). Composition of essential oil of plants some species of the genus Agastache L. Introduced in Belarus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Biological Series 64(2):147-155. https://doi.org/10.29235/1029-8940-2019-64-2-147-155
Kuhn M, Wing J, Weston S, Williams A, Keefer C, Engelhardt A … Hunt T (2021). caret: classification and regression training (6.0-90) [Computer software]. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=caret
Lam VP, Kim SJ, Bok GJ, Lee JW, Park JS (2020a). The effects of root temperature on growth, physiology, and accumulation of bioactive compounds of Agastache rugosa. Agriculture 10(5):162. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10050162
Lam VP, Kim SJ, Park JS (2020b). Optimizing the electrical conductivity of a nutrient solution for plant growth and bioactive compounds of Agastache rugosa in a plant factory. Agronomy 10(1):76. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10010076
Lee S-W, Kim J-B, Kim K-S, Kim M-S (1999). Changes of growth characteristics, rosmarinic acid and essential oil contents according to harvest time in Agastache rugosa O. Kuntze. Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science 7(2):83-88. Retrieved 2021 October 23 from https://www.koreascience.or.kr/article/JAKO199903042330184.page
Li FS, Weng JK (2017). Demystifying traditional herbal medicine with modern approach. Nature Plants 3(8):1-7. https://doi.org/10.1038/nplants.2017.109
Lint H, Epling C (1945). A revision of Agastache. The American Midland Naturalist 33(1):207-230. https://doi.org/10.2307/2421328
Lord T (2003). Flora: The Gardener’s Bible. Cassell - Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
Marchioni I, Dimita R, Gioè G, Pistelli L, Ruffoni B, Pistelli L, Najar B (2021). The effects of post-harvest treatments on the quality of Agastache aurantiaca edible flowers. Horticulturae 7(4):83. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7040083
Melnychuk OA, Rakhmetov DB (2016). The peculiarities of growth and development of Lophanthus anisatus Adans. Plants introducing in the conditions of Kremenets Botanical Garden. Plant Introduction 72:39-44. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2457491
Mendiburu F (2020). Agricolae: Statistical procedures for agricultural research. R package version 1.3-3. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=agricolae
Mohamed YA, Naser A (2012). Assessment of nitrate and nitrite contamination in herbal tea products. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 6(19):3555-3560. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR12.013
Muntean LS, Tămaș M, Muntean S, Muntean L, Duda MM, Vârban DI, Florian S (2016). Tratat de plante medicinale cultivate şi spontane (II). Risoprint.
Najafi F, Kavoosi G, Siahbalaei R, Kariminia A (2022). Anti-oxidative and anti-hyperglycemic properties of Agastache foeniculum essential oil and oily fraction in hyperglycemia-stimulated and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage cells: In vitro and in silico studies. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 284:114814. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114814
Najar B, Marchioni I, Ruffoni B, Copetta A, Pistelli L, Pistelli L (2019). Volatilomic analysis of four edible flowers from Agastache genus. Molecules 24(24):4480. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244480
Nchu F, Matanzima Y, Laubscher CP (2017). Prospects of N fertilization in medicinal plants cultivation. In: Nitrogen in Agriculture. IntechOpen. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.68165
Ohk H-C, Song J-S, Chae Y-A (2000). Effect of forms and levels of nitrogen fertilizer on plant growth and essential oil content of Agastache rugosa. Korean Journal of Crop Science 45(2):128-133.
Ok H-C, Chae Y-A (1998). Characteristics of seed and plant growth in local collections of Agastache rugosa. Korean Journal of Crop Science 43(4):269-272. Retrieved 2021 October 23 from https://www.koreascience.or.kr/article/JAKO199811922913335.pdf
Oksanen J, Blanchet FG, Friendly M, Kindt R, Legendre P, McGlinn D … Wagner H (2020). vegan: community ecology package (2.5-7) [Computer software]. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan
Özcan MM, Akbulut M (2008). Estimation of minerals, nitrate and nitrite contents of medicinal and aromatic plants used as spices, condiments and herbal tea. Food Chemistry 106(2):852–858. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.06.045
Palma-Tenango M, Sánchez-Fernández RE, Soto-Hernández M (2021). A systematic approach to Agastache mexicana research: biology, agronomy, phytochemistry, and bioactivity. Molecules 26(12):3751. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26123751
Polivanova OB, Cherednichenko MY (2017). Introduction to in vitro Culture and Micropropagation of two Agastache species—Agastache urticifolia and Agastache scrophulariifolia. 100. Retrieved 2021 October 23 from https://elib.bsu.by/bitstream/123456789/179997/1/p135.pdf
Quattrocchi U (2016). CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology (5 Volume Set). CRC Press.
R: The R Project for Statistical Computing. (n.d.). Retrieved 2021 December 4 from https://www.r-project.org/
Ripley B, Venables B, Bates DM, Hornik K, Gebhardt A, Firth D (2021). MASS: Support Functions and Datasets for Venables and Ripley’s MASS (7.3-54) [Computer software]. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=MASS
Robinson D et al., (2021). broom: Convert Statistical Objects into Tidy Tibbles (0.7.10) [Computer software]. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=broomRStudio. Open source & professional software for data science teams. (n.d.). Retrieved 2021 December 4 from https://rstudio.comhttps://www.rstudio.com/
Rudik GO (2016). Morphological structure of inflorescences of Agastache breviflora (A. Gray) Epling, A. rugosa (Fisch. & amp; C.A. Mey.) Kuntze, and A. rupestris (Greene) Standl. (Family Lamiaceae) ex situ. Modern Phytomorphology 10:81-86.
Schippmann U, Leaman D, Cunningham AB (2002). Impact of cultivation and gathering of medicinal plants on biodiversity: global trends and issues. FAO.
Schippmann U, Leaman D, Cunningham AB (2006). A comparison of cultivation and wild collection of medicinal and aromatic plants under sustainability aspects. In: Bogers RJ, Craker LE, Lange D (Eds). Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 17:75-95. Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-5449-1_6
Sheahan CM (2012). Fact sheet for purple giant hyssop (Agastache scrophulariifolia). USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service. Retrieved 2021 October 23 from https://plants.usda.gov/DocumentLibrary/factsheet/pdf/fs_agsc.pdf
Talebi SF, Saharkhiz MJ, Kermani MJ, Sharafi Y, Raouf FF (2017). Effect of different antimitotic agents on polyploid induction of anise hyssop (Agastache foeniculum L.). Caryologia 70(2):184-193. https://doi.org/10.1080/00087114.2017.1318502
Vârban R, Ona A, Stoie A, Vârban D, Crișan I (2021). Phenological assessment for agronomic suitability of some Agastache species based on standardized BBCH Scale. Agronomy 11(11):2280. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11112280
Wang W, Xu J, Fang H, Li Z, Li M (2020). Advances and challenges in medicinal plant breeding. Plant Science 298:110573. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2020.110573
WFO (2021). Agastache J. Clayton ex Gronov. Retrieved 2021 September 12 from http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000000903
WHO (2019) WHO Global Report on Traditional and Complementary Medicine; Geneva, Switzerland.
Yeo HJ, Park CH, Park YE, Hyeon H, Kim JK, Lee SY, Park SU (2021). Metabolic profiling and antioxidant activity during flower development in Agastache rugosa. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants 27(3):445-455. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12298-021-00945-z
Zielińska S, Matkowski A (2014). Phytochemistry and bioactivity of aromatic and medicinal plants from the genus Agastache (Lamiaceae). Phytochemistry Reviews 13(2):391-416. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-014-9349-1
How to Cite
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.