Yield losses in wheat genotypes caused by stripe rust (Puccinia striifarmis f. sp. tritici) in North Delta, Egypt


  • Yaser HAFEZ Kafrelsheikh University, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Botany Department, EPCRS Excellence Center, Plant Pathology and Biotechnology Laboratory, 33516 (EG)
  • Yasser MAZROU King Khalid University, Community College, Business Administration Department; Tanta University, Faculty of Agriculture (EG)
  • Atef SHAHIN Wheat Disease Research Department, Plant Pathology Research Institute (PPRI), Agricultural Research Center (ARC) (EG)
  • Farid MEHIAR Kafrelsheikh University, Plant Pathology Branch, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Botany Department, 33516, Kafr-Elsheikh (EG)
  • Mohamed EID Rice Research and Training Center, Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center (EG)
  • Khaled ABDELAAL Kafrelsheikh University, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Botany Department, EPCRS Excellence Center, Plant Pathology and Biotechnology Laboratory, 33516 (EG)




ACI, FRS, RRI, stripe rust, TKW, wheat, yield loss


Stripe (yellow) rust disease caused by Puccinia striifarmis f. sp. tritici, is a catastrophic wheat disease in wheat-growing regions around the world. The objective of this study was to investigate potential sources of stripe rust resistance and the yield loss of forty local wheat varieties at four locations in Egypt (Sakha, Mutubas, Qillin and Biyala), under yellow rust disease pressure compared to ‘Morroco’ variety, as control. To determine slow rusting in the field, the following parameters were recorded: final rust severity (FRS%), average coefficient of infection (ACI), relative resistance index (RRI) and reduction % in the 1000 kernel weight. The severity was higher in the second season than in the first. Seven wheat genotypes (‘Shaka 62’, ‘Shaka 9, ‘Shaka 95’, ‘Gemmiza 7’, ‘Sids 14’ and ‘Misr 3’) showed the high level of resistance, and FRS% values ranged from 0 to 20 moderately resistant (MR) during first season and achieved the least value of loss in TKW (1.28%) with ‘Misr 3’. Meanwhile, four genotypes (‘Sakha 93’, ‘Sakha 95’, ‘Sids 14’ and ‘Gim. 7’) remained highly resistant during the second season and identified to have good level of slow rusting resistance, which these genotypes showed FRS% values ranged from 5R to 30 moderately resistant-moderately susceptible (MRMS), ACI values ≤12, RRI values ≥6 and the loss % in TKW not exceed 12.54%.  On the other hand, the lines; ‘Shaka 69’, ‘Shaka 88’, ‘Shaka 92’, ‘Giza 160’, ‘Giza 163’, ‘Gem 11’, ‘Sids 2’ and ‘Sids 6’ exhibited complete susceptibility at the four tested sites, recorded FRS% values >50. Meanwhile, cv. ‘Gem 11’ in 2018/2019 recorded the highest level of ACI ≥55, the lowest level of RRI≤4.05 and the highest loss% in TKW reached 40.69%. These findings could be used in the national wheat breeding program for stripe rust resistance in Egypt.


Metrics Loading ...


Abdelaal Kh, Hafez Y, Badr M, Youseef W, Esmail S (2014). Biochemical, histological and molecular changes in susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars inoculated with stripe rust fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control 24(2):421-429.

Abdelaal Kh, Elafry M, Abdel-Latif, Elshamy R, Hassan M, Hafez Y (2021). Pivotal role of yeast and ascorbic acid in improvement the morpho-physiological characters of two wheat cultivars under water deficit stress in calcareous soil. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 30(3):2554-2565.

Akhtar M, Ahmad I, Mirza J, Rattu A, Hakro A, Jaffery A (2002). Evaluation of candidate lines against stripe and leaf rusts under national uniform wheat and barley yield trial 2000-2001. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 1:450-453. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajps.2002.450.453

Ali S, Shah S, Maqbool K (2008). Field-based assessment of partial resistance to yellow rust in wheat germplasm. Journal of AgricultureRural Development 6(1):99-106. https://doi.org/10.3329/jard.v6i1.1663

Ali S, Shah S, Ibrahim M (2007). Assessment of wheat breeding lines for slow yellow rusting (Puccinia striiformis West. tritici). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 10(19):3440-3444. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2007.3440.3444

Alnusairi GSH, Mazrou YSA, Qari SH, Elkelish AA, Soliman MH, Eweis M, … El Nahhas N (2021). Exogenous Nitric oxide reinforces photosynthetic efficiency, osmolyte, mineral uptake, antioxidant, expression of stress-responsive genes and ameliorates the effects of salinity stress in wheat. Plants 10(8):1693. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081693

Ashmawy M, Ragab K (2016). Grain yield losses of some wheat genotypes to stripe rust in Egypt. Menoufia Journal of Plant Protection 1(1):9-18. https://doi.org/10.21608/mjapam.2016.176621

Ashmawy M, Shahin A, Esmail S, El-Naby A (2019). Virulence dynamics and diversity of Puccinia striiformis populations in Egypt during 2017/18 and 2018/19 growing seasons. Journal of Plant Protection and Pathology 10(12):655-666. https://doi.org/10.21608/jppp.2019.79458

Aslam M (1982). Uniform procedure for development and release of improved wheat varieties. Mimeograph, PARC, Islamabad, 32.

Barbara G, Fidell L (2013) Using: Multivariate Statistics. 7th Edition. NY, Pearson.

Begum S, Iqbal M, Ahmed I, Fayyaz M, Shahzad A, Ali GM (2014). Allelic variation at loci controlling stripe rust resistance in spring wheat. Journal of Genetics 93:2. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12041-014-0413-9

Brown MB, Forsythe A (1974). Robust tests for the equality of variances. Journal of the American Statistical Association 69:364-367. https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1974.10482955

Chen W, Wellings C, Chen X, Kang Z, Liu T (2014). Wheat stripe (yellow) rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. Molecular Plant Pathology 15(5):433-446. https://doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12116

Chen X (2020). Pathogens which threaten food security: Puccinia striiformis, the wheat stripe rust pathogen. Food Security 12:239-251. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-020-01016-z

Chen X, Penman L (2005). Stripe rust epidemic and races of Puccinia striiformis in the United States in 2004. Phytopathology 95(6):S19-S19.

El-Daoudi Y, Shafik I, Ghanem H, Abu El-Naga S, Mitkees R, Sherif S, Khalifa M, Bassiouni A (1996). Stripe rust occurrence in Egypt and assessment of grain yield loss in 1995. In: Proceedings, Symposium Regional sur les Maladies des Cjr Jales at des lJ gumineuses Alimentaires, pp 11-14.

FAO (2018). Crop Prospects and Food Situation. Quarterly Global Report. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAOSTAT Rome, Italy.

Gao P, Duan TY, Nan ZB, Christensen MJ, Liu QT, Meng FJ, Huang JF (2018). The influence of irrigation frequency on the occurrence of rust disease (Melampsora apocyni) and determination of the optimum irrigation regime in organic Apocynum venetum production. Agricultural Water Management 205:81-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2018.04.026

Gebrel EEA, Al-Farouk MO, Gad MA (2020). Study of some crop and technological characteristics of some wheat cultivars under different levels of nitrogen fertilization and their affected by rust diseases. Journal of Plant Production 11(10):1021-1030. https://doi.org/10.21608/jpp.2020.131822

Ghulam H (2004). Diallel analysis of some important parameters in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under irrigated and rainfed conditions. NWFP Agricultural University.

Hafez Y, Emeran A, Esmail S, Mazrou Y, Abdrabbo D, Abdelaal Kh (2020). Alternative treatments improve physiological characters, yield and tolerance of wheat plants under leaf rust disease stress. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 29(6):4738-4748.

Herrera-Foessel S, Singh R, Huerta-Espino J, Crossa J, Djurle A, Yuen J (2007). Evaluation of slow rusting resistance components to leaf rust in CIMMYT durum wheats. Euphytica 155(3):361-369. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-006-9337-7

Hovmoller M, Yahyaoui A, Singh R (2009). A global reference centre for wheat yellow rust: pathogen variability, evolution and dispersal pathways at regional and global levels. Borlaug Global Rust Initiative, Cd. Obregon, Sonora, Mexico; 17-20 Mar 2009. Technical Workshop BGRI-Full papers and abs. CIS-5678. CIMMYT.

Hovmøller M (2001). Disease severity and pathotype dynamics of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in Denmark. Plant Pathology 50(2):181-189. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3059.2001.00525.x

Hovmøller M, Sørensen C, Walter S, Justesen A (2011). Diversity of Puccinia striiformis on cereals and grasses. Annual Review of Phytopathology 49:197-217. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-072910-095230

Hovmøller M, Walter S, Justesen A (2010). Escalating threat of wheat rusts. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Science 329(5990):369. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1194925

Johnson R (1992). Reflections of a plant pathologist on breeding for disease resistance, with emphasis on yellow rust and eyespot of wheat. Plant Pathology 41(3):239-254.

Kiani T, Mehboob F, Hyder MZ, Zainy Z, Xu L, Huang L, Farrakh S (2021). Control of stripe rust of wheat using indigenous endophytic bacteria at seedling and adult plant stage. Scientific Reports 11(1):1-14.‏ https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93939-6

Kushnirenko IY, Shreyder E, Bondarenko NP (2021). Resistance of common spring wheat genotypes to abiotic and biotic stresses in the Southern Urals. In: Plant Genetics, Genomics, Bioinformatics, and Biotechnology 134-134.

Line R, Qayoum A (1992). Virulence, aggressiveness, evolution, and distribution of races of Puccinia striiformis (the cause of stripe rust of wheat) in North America, 1968-87. Technical Bulletin-United States Department of Agriculture, 1788.

Martinez A, Youmans J, Buck J (2012). Stripe rust (Yellow Rust) of wheat. The University of Georgia, Cooperative Extension.

Mitiku M, Hei NB, Abera M (2018). Characterization of slow rusting resistance against stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in selected bread wheat cultivars of Ethiopia. Advances in Crop Science and Technology 6:389. https://doi.org/10.4172/2329-8863.1000389

Omara RI, Nehela Y, Mabrouk OI, Elsharkawy MM (2021). The emergence of new aggressive leaf rust races with the potential to supplant the resistance of wheat cultivars. Biology 10(9):925. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10090925

Omara R, El-Kot G, Fadel F, Abdelaal Kh, Eman E (2019). Efficacy of certain bioagents on patho-physiological characters of wheat plants under wheat leaf rust stress Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 106:102-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmpb.2018.12.010

Patil V, Hasabnis S, Narute T, Khot G, Kumbhar C (2012). Rusting behaviour of some wheat cultivars against leaf rust under artificial epiphytotic conditions. Indian Phytopathology 58(2):221-223.

Peterson R, Campbell A, Hannah A (1948). A diagrammatic scale for estimating rust intensity on leaves and stems of cereals. Canadian Journal of Research 26(5):496-500.

Poudyal DS, Chen XM (2010). Models for predicting potential yield loss of wheat caused by stripe rust in the US Pacific Northwest. Phytopathology 101(5):544-554. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-08-10-0215

Rehman A, Naqvi S, Umar U, Zafar M, Hussain F, Zulfiqar M, Khan A (2019). Identification of resistance sources in wheat to brown and yellow rust. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research 32(1):185-196.

Roelfs A, Singh R, Saari E (1992). Rust diseases of wheat: concepts and methods of disease management. Cimmyt. Centro International de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo, Mexico, pp 81.

Safavi SA (2012). Evaluation of slow rusting parameters in thirty-seven promising wheat lines to yellow rust. Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 2:324-329.

Shahin AA, Omar HA, El-Sayed AB (2018). Characterization of Yr18/Lr34 partial resistance gene to yellow rust in some Egyptian wheat cultivars. Egyptian Journal of Plant Protection Research 6(3):1-9.

Shahin A (2020a). Occurrence of new races and virulence changes of the wheat stripe rust pathogen (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in Egypt. Archives of Phytopathology-and Plant Protection 53(11-12):552-569. https://doi.org/10.1080/03235408.2020.1767330.

Shahin A, Ashmawy M, El-Orabey W, Samar E (2020b). Yield losses in wheat caused by stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) in Egypt. American Journal of Life Sciences 8(5):127-134. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajls.20200805.17

Singh R, Huerta-Espino J, William H (2005). Genetics and breeding for durable resistance to leaf and stripe rusts in wheat. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 29(2):121-127.

Singh R, William H, Huerta-Espino J, Rosewarne G (2004). Wheat rust in Asia: meeting the challenges with old and new technologies. Proceedings of the 4th International Crop Science Congress, 26 Sep-1 Oct 2004, Brisbane, Australia.

Snedecor GW, Chochran WG (1981). Statistical Methods. 6th Ed., Iowa State Univ. Press, Iowa, USA.

Stubbs R (1988). Pathogenicity analysis of yellow (stripe) rust of wheat and its significance in a global context. Breeding Strategies for Resistance to the Rusts of Wheat 8:23-28.

Tervet I, Rawson A, Saxon R (1951). A method for the collection of microscopic particles. Phytopathology 41(3):282-285.

USDA (2010). Keys to Soil Taxonomy. third edition. United State Department of Agriculture: Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS).

Walter S, Ali S, Kemen E, Nazari K, Bahri B, Enjalbert J, … Jones J (2016). Molecular markers for tracking the origin and worldwide distribution of invasive strains of Puccinia striiformis. Ecology and Evolution 6(9):2790-2804. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.2069

Waqar A, Khattak SH, Begum S, Rehman T, Shehzad A, Ajmal W, Ali GM (2018). Stripe rust: a review of the disease, Yr genes and its molecular markers. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 34(1).‏ https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.sja/2018/

Wan A, Zhao Z, Chen X, He Z, Jin S, Jia Q, … Li G (2004). Wheat stripe rust epidemic and virulence of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in China in 2002. Plant Disease 88(8):896-904. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.8.896

Wellings C (2007). Puccinia striiformis in Australia: a review of the incursion, evolution, and adaptation of stripe rust in the period 1979-2006. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 58(6):567-575.

Zhao J, Wang M, Chen, X, Kang Z (2016). Role of alternate hosts in epidemiology and pathogen variation of cereal rusts. Annual Review of Phytopathology 54:207-228. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080615-095851



How to Cite

HAFEZ, Y., MAZROU, Y., SHAHIN, A., MEHIAR, F., EID, M., & ABDELAAL, K. (2022). Yield losses in wheat genotypes caused by stripe rust (Puccinia striifarmis f. sp. tritici) in North Delta, Egypt. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 50(2), 12622. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha50212622



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha50212622

Most read articles by the same author(s)