Screening of the Romanian maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm for crtRB1 and lcyE alleles enhancing the provitamin A concentration in endosperm
Keywords:crtRB1, lcyE, maize, provitamins A
Maize occupies a significant place in the world agriculture. Yellow kernel maize contains mainly non-provitamin A carotenoids: lutein and zeaxanthin. The accumulation of provitamin A carotenoids is regulated by favourable alleles of lcyE and crtRB1 genes and could be used for the enhancement of these carotenoids in the maize grain through breeding. In this study, molecular screening of the Romanian germplasm was performed, looking for favourable alleles of the crtRB1 and lcyE genes, and the level of carotenoids was determined in a few selected lines. A number of 2746 inbred lines from seven research stations were subjected to a PCR amplification of crtRB1 and lcyE genes in order to identify the favourable alleles. It was selected 27 lines carrying the favourable alleles and nine lines with unfavourable alleles (four groups in total), from which total carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene and retinol equivalents were determined by HPLC. Out of 2746 inbred lines analysed, 23.53% contained one or both genes with favourable alleles. The favourable allele of the crtRB1 gene was the most widespread (584 lines), followed by the lcyE gene (55 lines), while alleles favourable for both genes were detected in only 7 lines. Inbred lines with the favourable allele of the crtRB1 gene showed the highest levels of β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin, while those with favourable allele of lcyE gene showed a high level of β-cryptoxanthin; the lines with favourable alleles for both genes had a level of β-carotene 60% higher than the lines with two unfavourable alleles.
Azmach G, Gedil M, Menkir A, Spillane C (2013). Marker-trait association analysis of functional gene markers for provitamin A levels across diverse tropical yellow maize inbred lines. BMC Plant Biology 13:227. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2229-13-227
Babu R, Rojas NP, Gao S, Yan J, Pixley K (2013). Validation of the effects of molecular marker polymorphisms in LcyE and CrtRB1 on provitamin A concentrations for 26 tropical maize populations. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 126:389-399. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-012-1987-3
Bonin A, Bellemain E, Bronken Eidesen P, Pompanon F, Brochmann C, Taberlet P (2004). How to track and assess genotyping errors in population genetics studies. Molecular Ecology 13:3261-3273. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02346.x
Burt AJ, Grainger CM, Smid MP, Shelp BJ, Lee EA (2011). Allele mining of exotic maize germplasm to enhance macular carotenoids. Crop Science 51:991-1004. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2010.06.0335
Calugar RE, Muntean E, Varga A, Vana CD, Has VV, Tritean N, Ceclan LA (2022). Improving the carotenoid content in maize by using isonuclear lines. Plants 11(13):1632. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11131632
DellaPenna D, Pogson BJ (2006). Vitamin synthesis in plants: tocopherols and carotenoids. Annual Review of Plant Biology 57:711-738. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.56.032604.144301
Duo H, Hossain F, Muthusamy V, Zunjare RU, Goswami R, Chand G, ... Yadav OP (2021). Development of sub-tropically adapted diverse provitamin-A rich maize inbreds through marker-assisted pedigree selection, their characterization and utilization in hybrid breeding. PLoS One 16(2):e0245497. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0245497
Gebremeskel S, Garcia-Oliveira AL, Menkir A, Adetimirin V, Gedil M (2017). Effectiveness of predictive markers for marker assisted selection of provitamin A carotenoids in medium-late maturing maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines. Journal of Cereal Science 79:27-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2017.09.001
Harjes CE, Rocheford TR, Bai L, Brutnell TP, Kandianis CB, Sowinski SG, ... Buckler ES (2008). Natural genetic variation in Lycopene Epsilon Cyclase tapped for maize biofortification. Science 319:330-333. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1150255
Liu L, Jeffers D, Zhang Y, Ding M, Chen W, Kang MS, Fan X (2015). Introgression of the crtRB1 gene into quality protein maize inbred lines using molecular markers. Molecular Breeding 35(8):154. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11032-015-0349-7
Menkir A, Dieng I, Mengesha W, Meseka S, Maziya-Dixon B, Alamu OE, … Coulibaly MM (2021). Unravelling the effect of provitamin A enrichment on agronomic performance of tropical maize hybrids. Plants (Basel, Switzerland) 10(8):1580. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081580
Menkir A, Maziya-Dixon B, Mengesha W, Rocheford T, Alamu EO (2017). Accruing genetic gain in provitamin A enrichment from harnessing diverse maize germplasm. Euphytica 213:1-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-017-1890-8
Menkir A, White WS, Maziya-Dixon B, Rocheford T (2008). Carotenoid diversity in tropical adapted yellow maize inbred lines. Food Chemistry 109:521-529. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.01.002
Muntean E, Rotar I (2010). HPLC assessment of provitamin a carotenoids from Cucurbita maxima Duch. ex. lam. (Mariţa cultivar) fruits. Research Journal of Agricultural Science 42(1):517-520.
Muntean E. (2020). Carotenoids in several Transylvanian maize hybrids. Proceedings of the 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science – SciForum, Retrieved 2022 May 12 from www.mdpi.com/journal/proceedings/
Murariu D, Plăcintă DD, Simioniuc V (2019). Assessing genetic diversity in Romanian maize landraces, using molecular markers. Romanian agricultural research 36:3-9.
Muthusamy V, Hossain F, Thirunavukkarasu N, Saha S, and Gupta HS (2015). Allelic variations for lycopene-ε-cyclase and β-carotene hydroxylase genes in maize inbreds and their utilization in β-carotene enrichment programme. Cogent Food & Agriculture 1:1033141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2015.1033141
Owens BF, Gore MA, Magallanes-Lundback M, Tiede T, Diepenbrock CH, Kandianis CB … Rocheford T (2014). A foundation for provitamin a biofortification of maize: genome-wide association and genomic prediction models of carotenoid levels. Genetics 198:1699-1716. https://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.114.169979
Pascovschi V (1957). Porumbul în economia Republicii Populare Române [Maize in the Romanian People Republic’s economy]. In: Săvulescu T (Ed). Porumbul; Studiu monografic [Maize; Monographic study]. Editura Academiei Republicii Populare Române, Bucharest, Romania pp 19-38.
Pixley K, Palacios-Rojas N, Raman B, Mutale R, Surles R, Simpungwe E (2013). In: Tanumihardjo S (Ed). Carotenoids and human health, chapter: biofortification of maize with provitamin A carotenoids. Springer, New York, NY, pp 271-292. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-62703-203-2_17
Shiferaw B, Prasanna BM, Hellin J, Hellin J, Bänziger M (2011). Crops that feed the world 6. Past successes and future challenges to the role played by maize in global food security. Food Security 3:307-327. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-011-0140-5
Suwarno WB, Hannok P, Palacios-Rojas N, Windham G, Crossa J and Pixley KV (2019). Provitamin A carotenoids in grain reduce aflatoxin contamination of maize while combating vitamin A deficiency. Frontiers in Plant Science 10:30. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.00030
Şuteu D, Băcilă I, Haş V, Haş I, Miclăuş M (2013). Romanian Maize (Zea mays) inbred lines as a source of genetic diversity in SE Europe, and their potential in future breeding efforts. PLoS One 8:e85501. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085501
Tan BC, Schwartz SH, Zeevaart JA, McCarty DR (1997). Genetic control of abscisic acid biosynthesis in maize. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 94:12235-12240. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.94.22.12235
Tanumihardjo SA (2011). Vitamin A: biomarkers of nutrition for development. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 94:658-665. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.110.005777
Vallabhaneni R, Gallagher CE, Licciardello N, Cuttriss AJ, Quinlan RF, Wurtzel ET (2009). Metabolite sorting of a germplasm collection reveals the hydroxylase3 locus as a new target for maize provitamin A biofortification. Plant Physiology 151:1635-1645. http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.109.145177
Vallabhaneni R, Wurtzel ET (2009). Timing and biosynthetic potential for carotenoid accumulation in genetically diverse germplasm of maize. Plant Physiology 150:562-572. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.109.137042
Vignesh M, Nepolean T, Hossain F, Singh AK, Gupta HS (2013). Sequence variation in 3′UTR region of crtRB1 gene and its effect on β-carotene accumulation in maize kernel. Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology 22:401-408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13562-012-0168-4
Yan J, Kandianis CB, Harjes CE, Bai L, Kim EH, Yang X ... Rocheford T (2010). Rare genetic variation at Zea mays crtRB1 increases β-carotene in maize grain. Nature Genetics 42:322-327. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.551
Zunjare RU, Chhabra R, Hossain F, Muthusamy V, Baveja A, Gupta HS (2017). Development and validation of multiplex-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of rare alleles of crtRB1 and lcyE governing higher accumulation of provitamin A in maize. Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology 8:75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13562-017-0432-8
Zunjare RU, Hossain F, Muthusamy V, Baveja A, Chauhan HS, Bhat JS … Gupta HS (2018). Development of biofortified maize hybrids through marker-assisted stacking of β-carotene hydroxylase, lycopene-ε cyclase and opaque2 genes. Frontiers in Plant Science 9:178. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.00178
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Ioan BĂCILĂ, Voichița HAȘ, Dana ȘUTEU, Mihai MICLĂUȘ, Ana COSTE, Edward MUNTEAN, Carmen D. VANA, Andrei VARGA, Roxana CĂLUGĂR, Ana COPÂNDEAN
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.