Effect of fertilizing with different levels of phosphorous and zinc on the botanical characteristics of table beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

  • Ebtesam A. GASHASH Baha University, Faculty of Arts and Science in Baljurashi, Department of Chemistry (SA) https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3405-5929
  • Ashmawi E. ASHMAWI Al-Azhar University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, Nasr City, Cairo (EG)
  • Ahmed M. EL-TAHER Al-Azhar University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture Botany, Nasr City, Cairo (EG)
  • Magdy A. OMAR Al-Azhar University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture Botany, Nasr City, Cairo (EG)
  • Nahid A. OSMAN Taif University, Ranya Collage, Department of Science and Technology (SA)
  • Noura M. TAHA Ain Shams University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, Cairo 11566 (EG)
  • Amr ELKELISH Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Botany Department, Ismailia, 41522 (EG)
Keywords: anatomical alterations, chemical contents, fertilizing, P, table beet, Zn


The interaction of phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) is a crucial factor affecting crop yield in agricultural production called a P-induced Zn deficiency. The application of Zn and P together reduces deficiencies and increases plant growth by more than the sum of the increases from Zn and P alone. This experiment was carried out during two seasons, in consecutive years, to study the effect of P and Zn levels on the physical, physiological and anatomical response in table beet plants. Treatment one was as control; the second treatment was 35 P units with 5, 10, and 20 Zn units; the third treatment was 40 P units with 5, 10, and 20 Zn units; and the fourth treatment was 45 P units with 5, 10, and 20 Zn units. The data showed that the number of leaves and the root diameters were high with the addition of 40 P units and 10 Zn units, and the roots fresh and dry weights were high under 40 P units and 10 Zn units in both seasons. The contents of TSS, AA, TS, ACY, N, P, and K were significantly increased by the use of 40 and 45 P units combined with 5 and 10 Zn units. The anatomical alterations in both leaf blade, epidermal layers, midrib zone, vessel diameter, vascular bundle area, palisade, and spongy tissues were studied. The results recommend that fertilizing table beet plants with 40 P units and 10 Zn units is suitable.


Metrics Loading ...


Abdel-Aziz HMM, Hasaneen MNA, Omer AM (2016). Nano chitosan-NPK fertilizer enhances the growth and productivity of wheat plants grown in sandy soil. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 14(1):17. https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2016141-8205

Aboyeji C, Dunsin O, Adekiya AO, Chinedum C, Suleiman KO, Okunlola FO, … Olofintoye TAJ (2019). Zinc sulphate and boron-based foliar fertilizer effect on growth, yield, minerals, and heavy metal composition of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea l) grown on an alfisol. International Journal of Agronomy 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/534787

Abu-Muriefah SS (2008). Growth parameters and elemental status of cucumber (Cucumus sativus) seedlings in response to cadmium accumulation. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 10(3):261-266.

Akhtar M, Yousaf S, Sarwar N, Hussain S (2019). Zinc biofortification of cereals role of phosphorus and other impediments in alkaline calcareous soils. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 41(5):2365-2379. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2008.06.005

Al-Dhalimi AM, Al-ajeel SAH (2020). Effect of zinc nanoparticles in leaves content of proline and non-enzymatic antioxidants of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under water stress. Euphrates Journal of Agriculture Science 12(1):138-145.

Alori ET, Glick BR, Babalola OO (2017). Microbial phosphorus solubilization and its potential for use in sustainable agriculture. Frontiers in Microbiology 8:971. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00971

Amanullah I, Inamullah X (2016). Dry matter partitioning and harvest index differ in rice genotypes with variable rates of phosphorus and zinc nutrition. Rice Science 23(2):78-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsci.2015.09.006

Amanullah SA, Iqbal A, Fahad S (2016). Foliar phosphorus and zinc application improve growth and productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) under moisture stress conditions in semi-arid climates. Journal of Microbial and Biochemical Technology 8:433-439. https://doi.org/10.4172/1948-5948.1000321

Amjad SF, Mansoora N, Din IU, Khalid Iqbal R, Jatoi GH, Murtaza G, … Fahad S (2021). Application of zinc fertilizer and mycorrhizal inoculation on physio-biochemical parameters of wheat grown under water-stressed environment. Sustainability 13(19):11007. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131911007

Arif M, Ali S, Ilyas M, Riaz M, Akhtar K, Ali K, … Shah S (2021). Enhancing phosphorus availability, soil organic carbon, maize productivity and farm profitability through biochar and organic--inorganic fertilizers in an irrigated maize agroecosystem under semi-arid climate. Soil Use and Management 37(1):104-119. https://doi.org/10.1111/sum.12661

Aziz MA, Ahmad HR, Corwin DL, Sabir M, Hakeem KR, Öztürk M (2017). Influence of farmyard manure on retention and availability of nickel, zinc and lead in metal-contaminated calcareous loam soils. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management 25(3):289-296. https://doi.org/10.3846/16486897.2016.1254639

Barben SA, Hopkins BG, Jolley VD, Webb BL, Nichols BA, Buxton EA (2011). Zinc, manganese and phosphorus interrelationships and their effects on iron and copper in chelator-buffered solution grown russet Burbank potato. Journal of plant nutrition 34(8):1144-1163. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2011.558158

Barker AV, Pilbeam DJ (2015). Handbook of plant nutrition. CRC press.

Barker AV, Pilbeam DJ (2007). Handbook of plant nutrition, CRC press.

Benáková M, Ahmadi H, Dučaiová Z, Tylová E, Clemens S, Tůma J (2017). Effects of Cd and Zn on physiological and anatomical properties of hydroponically grown Brassica napus plants. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24(25):20705-20716. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9697-7

Béné C, Barange M, Subasinghe R, Pinstrup-Andersen P, Merino G, Hemre GI, Williams M (2015). Feeding 9 billion by 2050--Putting fish back on the menu. Food Security 7(2):261-274. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-015-0427-z

Bibi F, Saleem IS, Ehsan S, Jamil S, Ullah H, Mubashir M, Kiran S, Ahmad I, Irshad I, Saleem M (2020). Effect of various application rates of phosphorus combined with different zinc rates and time of zinc application on phytic acid concentration and zinc bioavailability in wheat. Agriculture and Natural Resources 54(3):265-272. https://doi.org/10.34044/j.anres.2020.54.3.05

Broadley MR, White PJ, Hammond JP, Zelko I, Lux A (2007). Zinc in plants. New Phytologist 173(4):677-702. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.01996.x

Cakmak I, Kutman UB (2018). Agronomic biofortification of cereals with zinc: a review. European Journal of Soil Science 69(1):172-180. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.12437

Candan N, Cakmak I, Ozturk L (2018). Zinc-biofortified seeds improved seedling growth under zinc deficiency and drought stress in durum wheat. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 181(3):388-395. https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.201800014

Carstensen A, Herdean A, Schmidt SB, Sharma A, Spetea C, Pribil M, Husted S (2018). The impacts of phosphorus deficiency on the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Plant Physiology 177(1):271-284. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.17.01624 PMID: 29540590

Chen L, Lin L, Cai G, Sun Y, Huang T, Wang K, Deng J (2014). Identification of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium deficiencies in rice based on static scanning technology and hierarchical identification method. PloS One 9(11):e113200. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113200

Chethan KV, David AA, Thomas T, Swaroop N, Rao S, Hassan A (2018). Effect of different levels of NPK and Zn on physico-chemical properties of soil growth parameters and yield by pea (Pisum sativum L.) Cv. Rachana. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 7(3):2212-2215.

Chiera J, Thomas J, Rufty T (2002). Leaf initiation and development in soybean under phosphorus stress. Journal of Experimental Botany 53(368):473-481. https://doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/53.368.473

Cui J, Wang J, Zhang F (2003). Effect of phlogopite on plant growth under phosphorus deficiency. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 34(7-8):1135-1152. https://doi.org/10.1081/CSS-120019115

Das SK (2017). Effect of phosphorus and sulphur on yield attributes, yield, nodulation and nutrient uptake of green gram [Vigna radiate (L.) wilczek]. Legume Research 40(1):138-143. https://doi.org/10.18805/lr.v0iOF.9385

Deshpande RM, Lakhdive BA (1994). Effect of plant growth substances and phosphorus levels on yield and phosphorus uptake by cotton. PKV Research Journal 18:118-121.

Dewis J, Freitas F (1970). Physical and chemical methods of soil and water analysis. FAO Soils Bulletin.

Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PA, Smith F (1956). Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical Chemistry 28(3):350-356. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60111a017

Duffner A, Hoffland E, Temminghoff EJM (2012). Bioavailability of zinc and phosphorus in calcareous soils as affected by citrate exudation. Plant and Soil 361(1):165-175. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-012-1273-9

Fageria NK (2016). The use of nutrients in crop plants. CRC press. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420075113

Faizan M, Faraz A, Hayat S, Bhat JA, Yu F (2021). Zinc oxide nanoparticles and epibrassinolide enhanced growth of tomato via modulating antioxidant activity and photosynthetic performance. Biocell 45(4):1081. https://doi.org/10.32604/biocell.2021.015363

Farahani HA, Valadabadi SA, Khalvati MA (2009). Interactive effects of P supply and drought on root growth of the mycorrhizal coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science 1(5):217-222. https://doi.org/10.5897/JPBCS.9000087

Gangaiah B, Ahlawat IPS (2008). Response of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) to seeding time and phosphorus and their after-effects on succeeding baby corn (Zea mays). Indian Journal of Agronomy 53(1):42-46.

Goldman IL, Navazio JP (2008). Table beet, in: Vegetables I. Springer, pp 219-238. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-30443-4_7

Goldman IL, Navazio JP (2003). History and breeding of table beet in the United States. Plant Breeding Reviews 22:357-388.

Gupta A, Sharma VK, Sharma GD, Chopra P (2006). Effect of biofertilizer and phosphorus levels on yield attributes, yield and quality of urdbean (Vigna mungo). Indian Journal of Agronomy 51(2):142-144.

Gupta N, Ram H, Kumar B (2016). Mechanism of Zinc absorption in plants: uptake, transport, translocation and accumulation. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology 15(1):89-109. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003.00826.x

Hacisalihoglu G, Kochian LV (2003). How do some plants tolerate low levels of soil zinc? Mechanisms of zinc efficiency in crop plants. New phytologist 159(2):341-350. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003.00826.x

Hafeez B (2013). Role of zinc in plant nutrition- A Review. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture 3:374-391. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2013/2746

Hasan Md Mahmudul, Hasan Md Mainul, da Silva JAT, Li X (2016). Regulation of phosphorus uptake and utilization: transitioning from current knowledge to practical strategies. Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters 21(1):1-19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s11658-016-0008-y

Ibrahim EE, Mohamed F (2012). Combined effect of NPK levels and foliar nutritional compounds on growth and yield parameters of potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.). African Journal of Microbiology Research 6(24):5100-5109. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJMR12.085

Imran M, Rehim A, Sarwar N, Hussain S (2016). Zinc bioavailability in maize grains in response of phosphorous--zinc interaction. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 179(1):60-66. https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.201500441

Izhar Shafi M, Adnan M, Fahad S, Wahid F, Khan A, Yue Z, … Datta R (2020). Application of single superphosphate with humic acid improves the growth, yield and phosphorus uptake of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in calcareous soil. Agronomy 10(9):1224. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10091224

Kamara EG, Olympio NS, Asibuo JY (2011). Effect of calcium and phosphorus fertilizer on the growth and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science 1(8):326-331.

Kavanová M, Lattanzi FA, Grimoldi AA, Schnyder H (2006). Phosphorus deficiency decreases cell division and elongation in grass leaves. Plant Physiology 141(2):766-775. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.106.079699

Korkmaz K, Akgün M, Özcan MM, Özkutlu F, Kara SM (2021). Interaction effects of phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) on dry matter, concentration and uptake of P and Zn in chia. Journal of Plant Nutrition 44(5):755-764. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2020.1845373

Kumar R, Rathore DK, Singh M, Kumar P, Khippal A (2016). Effect of phosphorus and zinc nutrition on growth and yield of fodder cowpea. Legume Research - An International Journal 39(2):262-267. https://doi.org/10.18805/lr.v0iof.9384

Kumar R, Singh YV, Singh S, Latare AM, Mishra PK, Supriya (2012). Effect of phosphorus and sulphur nutrition on yield attributes, yield of mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research 4(5):2571-2573.

Lambers H, Chapin III, SF, Pons TL (2008). Plant physiological ecology. 3rd Edition. Springer. New York.

Lambers H, Plaxton WC (2015). Phosphorus: Back to the Roots. Annual Plant Reviews. Wiley Online Books. https://doi.org/10.9781118958841

Li Z, Qiu Q, Chen Y, Lin D, Huang J, Huang T (2021). Metabolite alteration in response to low phosphorus stress in developing tomato fruits. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 159:234-243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.12.023

Ma D, Sun D, Wang C, Ding H, Qin H, Hou J, Huang X, Xie Y, Gu T (2017). Physiological responses and yield of wheat plants in zinc-mediated alleviation of drought stress. Frontiers in Plant Science 8:860. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00860

Mahdi A, Sadoon A (2020). Peduncle anatomy of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as effected by plant growth regulators and zinc nanoparticles under water stress. Indian Journal of Ecology 47(9):7-16.

Malhotra H, Sharma S, Pandey R (2018). Phosphorus nutrition: plant growth in response to deficiency and excess, in: Plant nutrients and abiotic stress tolerance. Springer, pp 171-190. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-9044-8_7

Malik KM, Khan KS, Rukh S, Khan A, Akbar S, Billah M, … Elshikh MS (2021). Immobilization of Cd, Pb and Zn through organic amendments in wastewater irrigated soils. Sustainability 13(4):2392. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042392

Mora-Macias J, Ojeda-Rivera JO, Gutiérrez-Alanis D, Yong-Villalobos L, Oropeza-Aburto A, Raya-González J, … Herrera-Estrella L (2017). Malate-dependent Fe accumulation is a critical checkpoint in the root developmental response to low phosphate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114(17):E3563-E3572. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1701952114

Nassar MA, El-Sahhar KF (1998). Botanical preparations and microscopy (Microtechnique). Academic Bookshop, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, pp 219.

Official A (2000). Methods of analysis of AOAC international. AOAC International, Maryland, USA.

Ova EA, Kutman UB, Ozturk L, Cakmak I (2015). High phosphorus supply reduced zinc concentration of wheat in native soil but not in autoclaved soil or nutrient solution. Plant and Soil 393(1):147-162.

Palmgren MG, Clemens S, Williams LE, Krämer U, Borg S, Schjørring JK, Sanders D (2008). Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions. Trends in Plant Science 13(9):464-473. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2008.06.005

Pandey R (2015). Mineral nutrition of plants, in: Plant Biology and Biotechnology. Springer, pp 499-538. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-81-322-2286-6-20

Patel HR, Patel HF, Maheriya VD, Dodia IN (2013). Response of kharif greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] to sulphur and phosphorus fertilization with and without biofertilizer application. The Bioscan 8(1):149-152.

Patil SC, Jagtap DN, Bhale VM (2011). Effect of phosphorus and sulphur on growth and yield of moongbean. International Journal of Agricultural Sciences 7(2):348-351.

Powers S, Mirsky E, Bandaranayake A, Thavarajah P, Shipe E, Bridges W (2020). Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) shows genetic variation in phosphorus use efficiency in different P environments. Scientific Reports 10(1):1-12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75804-0

Raghothama KG (1999). Phosphate acquisition. Annual Review of Plant Biology 50:665-693. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant

Ranggana (1997). Manual analysis of fruit and vegetable products. Tata McGraw-Hill.

Razaq M, Zhang P, Shen H (2017). Influence of nitrogen and phosphorous on the growth and root morphology of Acer mono. PloS One 12(2):e0171321. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0171321

Rehman R, Asif M, Cakmak I, Ozturk L (2021). Differences in uptake and translocation of foliar-applied Zn in maize and wheat. Plant and Soil 462(1):235-244. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-021-04867-3

Rengel Z (2001). Genotypic differences in micronutrient use efficiency in crops. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 32(7-8):1163-1186. https://doi.org/10.1081/CSS-100104107

Roach T, Krieger-Liszkay A (2014). Regulation of photosynthetic electron transport and photoinhibition. Current Protein and Peptide Science 15(4):351-362. https://doi.org/10.2174/1389203715666140327105143

Saboor A, Ali MA, Hussain Shabir El Enshasy HA, Hussain Sajjad Ahmed N, Gafur A, Sayyed RZ, Fahad S, Danish S (2021). Zinc nutrition and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis effects on maize (Zea mays L.) growth and productivity. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 28(11):6339-6351. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10091224

Saleem A, Iqbal A, Fahad S (2016). Foliar phosphorus and zinc application improve growth and productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) under moisture stress conditions in semi-arid climates. Journal of Microbial and Biochemical Technology 8:433-439. https://doi.org/10.4172/1948-5948.1000321

Sánchez-Rodriguez AR, Rey MD, Nechate-Drif H, Castillejo MÁ, Jorrin-Novo JV, Torrent J, Del Campillo MC, Sacristán D (2021). Combining P and Zn fertilization to enhance yield and grain quality in maize grown on Mediterranean soils. Scientific Reports 11(1):1-14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86766-2

Sarhan A, Abd El-Dayem A, Soliman A, Sherbeeni S (2018). Effect of irrigation water salinity and zinc fertilization on growth of Swietenia macrophylla. Journal of Plant Production 9(7):631-635. https://doi.org/10.21608/jpp.2018.36371

Sarker BC, Karmoker JL, Rashid P (2010). Effects of phosphorus deficiency on anatomical structures in maize (Zea mays L.). Bangladesh Journal of Botany 39(1):57-60. https://doi.org/10.3329/bjb.v39i1.5527

Schjoerring JK, Cakmak I, White PJ (2019). Plant nutrition and soil fertility: synergies for acquiring global green growth and sustainable development. Plant and Soil 434(1):1-6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-017-3546-9

Shanti M, Babu BP, Prasad BR, Minhas PS (2008). Effect of zinc on blackgram in rice-blackgram cropping system of coastal saline soils. Legume Research 31(2):79-86.

Shemi R, Wang R, Gheith ESMS, Hussain HA, Hussain S, Irfan M, … Wang L (2021). Effects of salicylic acid, zinc and glycine betaine on morpho-physiological growth and yield of maize under drought stress. Scientific Reports 11(1):1-14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82264-7

Siam HS, Abd El-moez MR, El-Ashry SM (2008). Response of lettuce followed by sorghum to application of different types of phosphorus, compost and sulfur. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 2(3):447-457.

Siddiqui MH, Al-Whaibi MH, Sakran AM, Basalah MO, Ali HM (2012). Effect of calcium and potassium on antioxidant system of Vicia faba L. under cadmium stress. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 13(6):6604-6619. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13066604

Singh P, Yadav KK, Meena FS, Singh B, Singh R (2017). Effect of phosphorus and sulphur on yield attributes, yield and nutrient uptake of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) in central plain zone of Punjab. Plant Archives 17(2):1756-1760.

Singh R, Singh V, Singh P, Yadav RA (2018). Effect of phosphorus and PSB on yield attributes, quality and economics of summer greengram (Vigna radiata L.). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 7(2):404-408.

Snedecor GW, Cochran WG (1980). Statistical method 7th Ed. The Iowa state university press, Ames, Iowa, USA 1980:39-63.

Soltangheisi A, Ishak CF, Musa HM, Zakikhani H, Rahman ZA (2013). Phosphorus and zinc uptake and their interaction effect on dry matter and chlorophyll content of sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata). Journal of Agronomy 12(4):187-192. https://doi.org/10.3923/ja.2013.187.192

Soltangheisi A, Rahman ZA, Ishak CF, Musa HM, Zakikhani H (2014a). Interaction effects of phosphorus and zinc on their uptake and 32P absorption and translocation in sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata) grown in a tropical soil. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 13(3):129-135. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajps.2014.129.135

Soltangheisi A, Rahman ZA, Ishak CF, Musa HM, Zakikhani H (2014b). Effect of zinc and phosphorus supply on the activity of carbonic anhydrase and the ultrastructure of chloroplast in sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata). Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 13(2):51-58. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajps.2014.51.58

Song CZ, Liu MY, Meng JF, Chi M, Xi ZM, Zhang ZW (2015). Promoting effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on accumulation of sugar and phenolics in berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on zinc deficient soil. Molecules 20(2):2536-2554. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules20022536

Stigter KA, Plaxton WC (2015). Molecular mechanisms of phosphorus metabolism and transport during leaf senescence. Plants 4(4):773-798. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants4040773

Suganya A, Saravanan A, Baskar M, Pandiyarajan P, Kavimani R (2020). Agronomic biofortification of maize (Zea mays L.) with zinc by using of graded levels of zinc in combination with zinc solubilizing bacteria and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Journal of Plant Nutrition 44(7):988-994. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2020.1845383

Sun L, Song L, Zhang Y, Zheng Z, Liu D (2016). Arabidopsis PHL2 and PHR1 act redundantly as the key components of the central regulatory system controlling transcriptional responses to phosphate starvation. Plant Physiology 170(1):499-514. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.15.01336

Swaney DP, Howarth RW (2019). Phosphorus use efficiency and crop production: Patterns of regional variation in the United States, 1987-2012. Science of the Total Environment 685:174-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.22

Tahir FA, Ahamad N, Rasheed MK, Danish S (2018). Effect of various application rate of zinc fertilizer with and without fruit waste biochar on the growth and Zn uptake in maize. International Journal of Biosciences 13:159-166. https://doi.org/10.12692/ijb/13.1.159‐166

Tolay I (2021). The impact of different Zinc (Zn) levels on growth and nutrient uptake of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) grown under salinity stress. PLoS One 16(2):e0246493. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246493

Vadlamudi K, Upadhyay H, Singh A, Reddy M (2020). Influence of zinc application in plant growth: An Overview. European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine 7(7):2321-2327.

Vafaei G, Sarraf A, (2014). Effect of phosphorus and zinc fertilizer application to increasing the quality of nourishment in winter wheat. International Journal of Biosciences. 5(4):82-87. https://doi.org/10.12692/ijb/5.4.82-87

Wahid F, Fahad S, Danish S, Adnan M, Yue Z, Saud S, … Datta R (2020). Sustainable management with mycorrhizae and phosphate solubilizing bacteria for enhanced phosphorus uptake in calcareous soils. Agriculture 10(8):334. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10080334

Wissuwa M, Gamat G, Ismail AM (2005). Is root growth under phosphorus deficiency affected by source or sink limitations? Journal of Experimental Botany 56(417):1943-1950. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eri189

Xu J, Wang X, Zhu H, Yu F (2021). Maize genotypes with different zinc efficiency in response to low zinc stress and heterogeneous zinc supply. Frontiers in Plant Science 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.736658

Zhang YQ, Deng Y, Chen RY, Cui ZL, Chen XP, Yost R, Zhang FS, Zou CQ (2012). The reduction in zinc concentration of wheat grain upon increased phosphorus-fertilization and its mitigation by foliar zinc application. Plant and Soil 361(1):143-152. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-012-1238-z

How to Cite
GASHASH, E. A., ASHMAWI, A. E., EL-TAHER, A. M., OMAR, M. A., OSMAN, N. A., TAHA, N. M., & ELKELISH, A. (2022). Effect of fertilizing with different levels of phosphorous and zinc on the botanical characteristics of table beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 50(1), 12579. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha50112579
Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha50112579