Seasonal changes of macronutrients concentration in olive trees grown in acid and in alkaline soils
Leaf samples from mature olive (Olea europaea L. cv. ‘Kalamon’) trees were collected monthly from April 2018 to March 2019 from two olive orchards, cultivated one in acid and one in alkaline soil, located in Western Greece. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) concentrations in the leaves were determined and seasonal variation curves were calculated for each nutrient and orchard. The seasonal concentration patterns of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg nutrients were almost similar in both soils. Seasonal variation nutrient curves independently of soil acidity varied according to vegetation stages and no significant differences in nutrient concentrations were observed at different development stages between olives grown in the acid or the alkaline soils, with only one exception the leaf K concentration. The nutrient concentration measured in wintertime was at a sufficient level for optimum olive growth in both orchards. These concentrations could be used as reference values for leaf analysis interpretation and for developing an optimum fertilization program under Mediterranean climatic conditions.
Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D, Smith M (1998). Crop evapotranspiration guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56 Rome, FAO.
Analogidis D (2000). Soil, nutrients and crop production. Athens, Greece. Agro Typos S.A. (in Greek).
Androulakis I (1987). Studies on growth, flowering and mineral content of the leaves of the olive (Olea europaea L.) in relation to biennial bearing and mineral nutrition in Crete. PhD Thesis Univ of London.
Androulakis I, Loupassaki MH, Schwabe WW (1997). The content of mineral elements in the leaves of the olive cv. ‘Koroneiki’ in relation to irrigation and the time of sampling. Acta Horticulturae 449:119-124 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1997.449.15
Bouhafa K, Moughli L, Bouabid R, Douaik A, Taarabt Y (2018). Dynamics of macronutrients in olive leaves. Journal of Plant Nutrition 41(8):956-968. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2018.1431664
Bremner JM, Mulvaney CS (1982). Salicilic acid thiosulfate modification of Kjieldahl method to include nitrate and nitrite. In: Page AL (Ed). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. second ed. American Society of Agronomy No 9 (Part 2) in the Agronomy Series. ASA, SSSA, Madison, WI pp 595-562.
Chapman HD, Pratt PF (1978). Methods of analysis for soils, plants and waters. Univ California Div Agric Sci Priced Publication, Oakland.
Chatzissavvidis C, Therios I, Molassiotis A (2005). Seasonal variation of nutritional status of olive plants as affected by boron concentration in nutrient solution. Journal of Plant Nutrition 28:309-321.
Chatzistathis Th, Therios I, Alifragis D, Dimassi K (2010). Effect of sampling time and soil type on Mn, Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg, K and P concentrations of olive (Olea europaea L., cv. ‘Koroneiki’) leaves. Scientia Horticulturae 126(2):291-296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.07.021
Eurostat (2021). Olive trees cover 4.6 million hectares in the EU. Retrieved 2021 June 30 from: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-eurostat-news/-/DDN-20190301-1
Fernández-Escobar R, Moreno R, Garcia-Creus M (1999). Seasonal changes of mineral nutrients in olive leaf during the alternative-bearing cycle. Scientia Horticulturae 82:25-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(99)00045-X
Fernández-Escobar R (2018) Trends in olive nutrition (a review). Acta Horticulturae 1199:215-223. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2018.1199.35
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (FAO). FAOSTAT, Production Statistics. Retrieved 2021 June 18 from: http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC
Fraga H, Moriondo M, Leolini L; Santos JA (2021). Mediterranean olive orchards under climate change: a review of future impacts and adaptation strategies. Agronomy 11(1):56. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11010056
Gee GW, Bauder JW (1986). Particle-size analysis. In: Page AL (Ed). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Methods. 2nd Ed. American Society of Agronomy No 9 (Part 1) in the Agronomy Series. ASA, SSSA, Madison, WI pp 383-411.
Horneck DA, Miller RO (1998). Determination of total nitrogen in plant tissue. In: Kalra YP (Ed). Handbook of Reference Methods for Plant Analysis, CRC Press, New York, pp 75-83.
International Olive Council (IOC) (2007). Production techniques in olive growing. Pp 145-164.
McLean E (1982). Soil pH and lime requirement. In: Page AL (Ed). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. 2nd Ed. American Society Agronomy No 9 (Part 2) in the Agronomy Series. ASA, SSSA, Madison, WI pp 199-223.
Michalopoulos G, Kasapi KA, Koubouris G, Psarras G, Arampatzis G, Hatzigiannakis E, Kokkinos G (2020). Adaptation of Mediterranean olive groves to climate change through sustainable cultivation practices. Climate 8(4):54. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli8040054
Michelakis N (2002). Olive orchard management: Advances and problems. Acta Horticulturae 586:239-245. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.586.45
Miller RO (1998). High temperature oxidation: dry ashing. In: Kalra YP (Ed). Handbook of Reference Methods for Plant Analysis. CRC Press, New York, pp 53-56.
Murphy J, Riley JP (1962). A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta 27:31-36.
Nelson DW, Sommers LE (1982). Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Page AL (Ed). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. second ed. American Society of Agronomy No 9 (Part 2) in the Agronomy Series. ASA, SSSA, Madison, WI pp 539-577.
Nelson RE (1982). Carbonate and gypsum. In: Page AL (Ed). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. second ed. American Society Agronomy No 9 (Part 2) in the Agronomy Series. ASA, SSSA, Madison, WI pp 181-196.
Papadakis I (1985). Agricultural climate in Greece. Greek Academy of Sciences 60:53-103.
Pasković I, Perica S, Pecina M, Hančević K, Polić Pasković M, Herak Ćustić M (2013). Leaf mineral concentration of five olive cultivars grown on calcareous soil. Journal of Central European Agriculture 14:1471-1478. https://doi.org/10.5513/JCEA01/14.4.1380
Perica S (2001). Seasonal fluctuation and intra-canopy variation in leaf nitrogen level in olive. Journal of Plant Nutrition 24:779-787.
Restrepo-Díaz H, Benlloch M, Navarro C, Fernández-Escobar R (2008). Potassium fertilization of rainfed olive orchards. Sciencia Horticolturae 116:399-403. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2008.03.001
Rhoades JD (1982). Cation exchange capacity. In: Page AL (Ed). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. second ed. American Society of Agronomy No 9 (Part 2) in the Agronomy Series. ASA, SSSA, Madison, WI pp 149-157.
Sibbesen E, Sharpley AN (1997). Setting and justifying upper critical limits phosphorus in soils. In: Tunney H, Carton OC, Brookes PC, Johnston AE (Eds). Phosphorus Loss from Soil to Water. CAB International, New York, pp 151-176.
Soil Science Division Staff (2017). Soil survey manual. In: Ditzler C, Scheffe K, Monger HC (Eds). USDA Handbook 18. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual (1996). Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 42, version 3.0. United States Department of Agriculture.
Solomou AD; Sfougaris A (2021). Contribution of agro-environmental factors to yield and plant diversity of olive grove ecosystems (Olea europaea L.) in the Mediterranean landscape. Agronomy 11(1):161. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11010161
Stateras D, Moustakas NK (2018). Seasonal changes of macro- and micro-nutrients concentration in olive leaves. Journal of Plant Nutrition 41(2):186-196, https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2017.1383421
StatSoft Inc. (2008). STATISTICA, ver. 8. Tulsa, OK.
Steinmetz Z, Kurtz MP, Dag A, Zipori I, Schaumann GE (2015). The seasonal influence of olive mill wastewater applications on an orchard soil under semi-arid conditions. Journal Plant Nutrition Soil Science 178:641-648. https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.201400658
Therios I (2009). Olives. Crop Production Science in Horticulture. C.A.B. International pp 182, 409.
Thomas GW (1982). Exchangeable cations. In: Page AL (Ed). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. second ed. American Society of Agronomy No 9 (Part 2) in the Agronomy Series. ASA, SSSA, Madison, WI., 159-164.
World Reference Base for Soil Resources (2014). Update 2015 International Soil Classification System for Naming Soils and Creating Legends for Soil Maps; World Soil Resources Reports No. 106; FAO: Rome, Italy, 2005.
Yassoglou N, Gavalas N (1979). Soil and leaf analyses of olive groves in Greece. Proceedings of the 14th, Colloquium of the International Potash Institute, pp 279-288.
Zipori I, Erel R, Yermiyahu U, Ben-Gal A, Dag A (2020). Sustainable management of olive orchard nutrition: a review. Agriculture 10(1):11. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10010011
Copyright (c) 2021 Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.