Climate changes in recent decades, the evolution of the drought phenomenon and their influence on vineyards in north-eastern Romania
Unfavourable trends have been identified in the evolution of climate factors (temperatures, precipitation, etc.) over the past years, with a direct impact on the vegetative and productive potential of the vine. This calls for a reassessment of climate resources and the adaptation of cultivation technologies to the new conditions. Our paper analyses the climate data recorded between 1991 and 2020 for the Iaşi vineyard ecosystem, which allowed for the calculation of a series of bioclimatic indices and coefficients, deviations from the multiannual average values, soil moisture dynamics, and their influence on development of vegetation phenophases and grape production. The increasing tendency of the average annual temperature and the decreasing amounts of precipitation registered point to a marked warming of the vineyard climate, especially after 2000. The high values of temperatures, corroborated with the soil water deficit, determined an intensification of the atmospheric and pedological drought, a shift in vegetation phenophases, shortened development periods and a forced ripening of grapes, with a negative impact on yields, which fluctuated from one year to another. The analysis of the ecoclimate conditions over the past 30 years has highlighted an alternation of periods, a colder and wetter one between 1991 and 2006, and a warmer and dried one between 2007 and 2020.
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