Novel sources of resistance to powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica (Lév.) Arnaud) in pepper
Keywords:chiltepin, high tolerance, oidium, chlorosis, complex control resistance, screening
Peppers, a worldwide crop, are threatened by different pathogens. Powdery mildew, a biotroph fungal infection, can cause several damages directly on vegetative parts and indirectly on fruits. Despite some sources of resistance have been described, commercial genotypes only with partial resistance have been developed due to the complex nature of such resistance and variable genetic expression, which depends on the stage of the plants. In this paper 49 accessions from different Capsicum species and origins have been tested. Plants were grown in growth chambers inside of mini greenhouses. Repeated inoculations under pepper leaves were applied by spraying a suspension of 104 conidia ml-1. Readings were made at 30 and 60 days after inoculation (DAI). Total number of leaves (TL), total number of affected leaves (LA), and maximum area affected (MAA) in the most damaged leaf were scored. In addition, a composite infection index (CII) was calculated on the basis of the three mentioned traits. Inoculated plants showed more severe symptoms at 30 DAI than at 60 DAI. Different response patterns were observed: from accessions suffering high leaf shedding to some others with local hypersensitive response, indicating different gene action. The use of CII prevented species bias and disease response. In the present work, four highly tolerant accessions were identified, including two chiltepins, C. annuum wild relatives, Ag-01 and Ag-02, and two C. annuum A-06 and A-23.
Aguilar‐Meléndez A, Morrell PL, Roose ML, Kim SC (2009). Genetic diversity and structure in semiwild and domesticated chiles (Capsicum annuum; Solanaceae) from Mexico. American Journal of Botany 96(6):1190-1202. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.0800155
Albert R, Künstler A, Lantos F, Adám AL (2017). Graft-transmissible resistance of cherry pepper (Capsicum annuum var. cerasiforme) to powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica) is associated with elevated superoxide accumulation, NADPH oxidase activity and pathogenesis-related gene expression. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 39:53. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-017-2353-5
Bai Y, Huang CC, van der Hulst R, Meijer-Dekens F, Bonnema G, Lindhout P (2003). QTLs for tomato powdery mildew resistance (Oidium lycopersici) in Lycopersicon parviflorum G1.1601 co-localize with two qualitative powdery mildew resistance genes. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 16(2):169-176. https://doi.org/10.1094/MPMI.2003.16.2.169
Blat SF, da Costa CP, Vencovsky R, Sala FC (2005). Inheritance of reaction to Leveillula taurica (Lev.) Arn. in Capsicum annuum L. Scientia Agricola 62(1):40-44. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162005000100008
Blat SF, da Costa CP, Vencovsky R, Sala FC (2006). Hot pepper (Capsicum chinense, Jacq.) inheritance of reaction to powdery mildew. Scientia Agricola 63(5):471-474. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162006000500008
Daubeze AM, Hennart JW, Palloix A (1995). Resistance to Leveillula taurica in pepper (Capsicum annuum) is oligogenically controlled and stable in Mediterranean regions. Plant Breeding 114:327-332. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0523.1995.tb01243.x
de Souza VL, Café-Filho AC (2003). Resistance to Leveillula taurica in the genus Capsicum. Plant Pathology 52:613-619. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3059.2003.00920.x
Eggink PM, D’hoop BB, Brouwer M, and Deniau AX (2016). Resistance against Leveillula taurica in Pepper. U.S. Patent No 9, 351, 451. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Elad Y, Messika Y, Brand M, David DR, Sztejnberg A (2007). Effect of microclimate on Leveillula taurica powdery mildew of sweet pepper. Phytopathology 97(7):813-824. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-97-7-0813
FAOSTAT (2021). Statistic division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy. Retrieved 2021 March 01 from http://www.fao.org/faostat/
Gabor BK, Just BJ, Huang C, Jones CM, Vreugdenhil D, Kniskern JM, … Xiang W (2017). Methods and compositions for producing Capsicum plants with powdery mildew resistance. U.S. Patent No 9,689,045. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Hayano‐Kanashiro C, Gámez‐Meza N, Medina‐Juárez LÁ (2016). Wild pepper Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum: Taxonomy, plant morphology, distribution, genetic diversity, genome sequencing, and phytochemical compounds. Crop Science 56(1):1-11. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2014.11.0789
Hoshmand R (2020). Design of experiments for agriculture and the natural sciences (2nd edition). Chapman and Hall/CRC.
Jo J, Venkatesh J, Han K, Lee HY, Choi GJ, Lee HJ, Choi D, Kang BC (2017). Molecular mapping of PMR1, a novel locus conferring resistance to powdery mildew in pepper (Capsicum annuum). Frontiers in Plant Science 8: 2090. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.02090
Kim DS, Hwang BK (2012). The pepper MLO gene, CaMlo2, is involved in susceptibility cell death response and bacterial and oomycete proliferation. The Plant Journal 72:843-855. https://doi.org/10.1111/tpj.12003
Kono A, Ban Y, Mitani N, Fujii H, Sato S, Suzaki K, … Sato A (2018). Development of SSR markers linked to QTL reducing leaf hair density and grapevine downy mildew resistance in Vitis vinifera. Molecular Breeding 38:138. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11032-018-0889-8
Kraft KH, Luna-Ruíz J, Gepts P (2013). A new collection of wild populations of Capsicum in Mexico and the southern United States. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 60(1):225-232. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10722-012-9827-5
Lee OH, Hwang HS, Kim JY, Han JH, Yoo YS, Kim BS (2001). A search for sources of resistance to powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica (Lév.) Arn) in pepper (Capsicum spp.). Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 19(1):7-11.
Lefebvre V, Daubèze AM, Rouppe van der Voort J, Peleman J, Bardin M, Palloix A (2003). QTLs for resistance to powdery mildew in pepper under natural and artificial infections. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 107:661-666.
Lin K, Gong L, Huang Y, Liu C, Pan J (2019). Deep learning-based segmentation and quantification of cucumber powdery mildew using convolutional neural network. Frontiers in Plant Sciences 10:155. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.00155
Luna-Ruiz JdJ, Pérez-Chávez MS, Martínez-de-Anda JA, Sosa-Ramírez J (2018). Distribución ecogeográfica del chile silvestre en México y su conservación ex situ. In: Aguilar-Meléndez A, Vásquez-Dávila MA, Katz E, Hernández-Colorado MR (Eds). Los chiles que le dan sabor al mundo. IRD Éditions. https://doi.org/10.4000/books.irdeditions.30934
Manzur JP, Fita A, Prohens J, Rodríguez-Burruezo A (2015). Successful wide hybridization and introgression breeding in a diverse set of common peppers (Capsicum annuum) using different cultivated ají (C. baccatum) accessions as donor parents. PLoS One 10:12. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144142
McCoy JE, Bosland PW (2019). Identification of resistance to powdery mildew in Chile pepper. HortScience 54(1):4-7. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI13596-18
Molot PM, Leroux JP, Diop-Bruckler M (1990). Leveillula taurica (Lév) Arn: cultures axéniques, biologie et spécificité parasitaire [Leveillula taruica (Lév) Arn: axenic cultures, biology and parasite specificity]. Agronomie 10(7):551-559. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00885316
Molot PM, Leroux JP, Ferriere H (1987). Les oÏdiums des cucurbitacées. II. Mise au point d’une technique de conservation des souches en culture axénique [Powdery mildew of cucurbits. II. Development of a technique for the conservation of strains in axenic culture]. Agronomie 7(5):339-343. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00884999
Özer N, Kün A, İlbi H (2018). Detached leaf test for evaluation of resistance to powdery mildew in pepper. Agricultural Research & Technology 14:3. https://doi.org/10.19080/ARTOAJ.2018.14.555923
Parisi M, Alioto D, Tripodi P (2020). Overview of biotic stresses in pepper (Capsicum spp.): Sources of genetic resistance, molecular breeding and genomics. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21(7):2587. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072587
Pereira-Dias L, Vilanova S, Fita A, Prohens J, Rodríguez-Burruezo A (2019). Genetic diversity, population structure, and relationships in a collection of pepper (Capsicum spp.) landraces from the Spanish center of diversity revealed by genotyping-by-sequencing. Horticulture Research 6:54. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41438-019-0132-8
Robbins MGL, Hoffmann DRT, Wang FV (2017). Anticarcinogenic flavonoids in different fruits commonly consumed. Plant Sciences Journal 40:2379-2383.
Sudha A, Lakshmanan P (2009). Integrated disease management of powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica (Lev.) Arn.) of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 42:299-317. https://doi.org/10.1080/03235400601037198
Zheng Z (2012). Exploration of MLO-based resistance in vegetable crops. PhD Thesis, Wageningen University, Netherlands.
Zheng Z, Nonomura T, Bóka K, Matsuda Y, Visser RGF, Toyoda H, … Bai Y (2013). Detection and quantification of Leveillula taurica growth in pepper leaves. Phytopathology 103:623-632. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-08-12-0198-R
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.