The phytochemical constituents and therapeutic uses of genus Aloe: A review

  • Aida PUIA University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Hatieganu” , 8 Victor Babes Street, Cluj-Napoca (RO) https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0493-9114
  • Cosmin PUIA University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Hatieganu” , 8 Victor Babes Street, Cluj-Napoca; Regional Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology “Prof. O. Fodor”, 19-21 Croitorilor Street, Cluj-Napoca (RO) https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2638-9056
  • Emil MOIȘ University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Hatieganu” , 8 Victor Babes Street, Cluj-Napoca;Regional Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology “Prof. O. Fodor”, 19-21 Croitorilor Street, Cluj-Napoca (RO)
  • Florin GRAUR University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Hatieganu” , 8 Victor Babes Street, Cluj-Napoca; Regional Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology “Prof. O. Fodor”, 19-21 Croitorilor Street, Cluj-Napoca (RO) https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5887-3408
  • Alin FETTI University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Hatieganu” , 8 Victor Babes Street, Cluj-Napoca; Regional Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology “Prof. O. Fodor”, 19-21 Croitorilor Street, Cluj-Napoca (RO) https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3714-1117
  • Mira FLOREA University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Hatieganu” , 8 Victor Babes Street, Cluj-Napoca (RO) https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1441-9614
Keywords: Aloe, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, cancer, healing

Abstract

Aloe, the largest genus in the Asphodelaceae family, comprises 548 species, with A. vera, A. arborescens and A. ferox being among the most widely studied species. Aloe species originated in arid climates and cover various habitats, from sea level up to 2700 m, and from desert to closed-canopy forests. For human health, Aloe species are the richest natural sources. The biological activity of Aloe sp. constituents covers a wide spectrum. Most of the indications come from traditional, folkloric use and several have been verified by in vitro or in vivo studies. Emodin, the main phenolic component, has showed anti-neoplastic, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and toxicological potential for use in pharmacology. Polysaccharides, with acemannan being the most important, are present in high abundance in Aloe gels. Acemannan has been reported to have applications in oral, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, oncology, dentistry and wound healing. The effectiveness of Aloe sp. constituents on colon, liver, duodenum, skin, pancreas, intestine, lungs and kidneys cancers was highly studied with remarkable findings. Regarding the metabolic syndrome, Aloe sp. can be used as an antidiabetic and reduces cholesterol and total body fat. Constituents of Aloe sp. are nontoxic in experimental acute oral studies and are widely used in cosmetology and as bitter agents or consistence modifiers in food and beverages. Traditional Aloe remedies cover most human diseases; however, in order to gain legitimacy, the Aloe-derived drugs must have a well-established composition, with thoroughly investigated adverse effects and conventional drug interactions.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Akaberi M, Sobhani Z, Javadi B, Sahebkar A, Emami SA (2016). Therapeutic effects of Aloe spp. in traditional and modern medicine: A review. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 84:759-772. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2016.09.096

Akanmu AM, Hassen A, Adejoro FA (2020). Haematology and serum biochemical indices of lambs supplemented with Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Aloe vera leaf extract as anti-methanogenic additives. Antibiotics 14(9):601. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9090601

Alemdar S, Agaoglu S (2009). Investigation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of Aloe vera juice. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 8(1):99-102.

Ali F, Wajid N, Sarwar MG, Qazi AM (2020). Oral administration of Aloe vera ameliorates wound healing through improved angiogenesis and chemotaxis in Sprague Dawley rats. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. https://doi.org/10.2174/1389201021999201001204345

Alinejad-Mofrad S, Foadoddini M, Saadatjoo SA, Shayesteh M (2015). Improvement of glucose and lipid profile status with Aloe vera in pre-diabetic subjects: A randomized controlled-trial. Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders 14(22). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40200-015-0137-2

Andersen FA (2007). Final report on the safety assessment of Aloe andongensis extract, Aloe andongensis leaf juice, Aloe arborescens leaf extract, Aloe arborescens leaf juice, Aloe arborescens leaf protoplasts, Aloe barbadensis flower extract, Aloe barbadensis leaf, aloe bar. International Journal of Toxicology 26(2):1-50. https://doi.org/10.1080/10915810701351186

Benítez S, Achaerandio I, Pujolà M, Sepulcre F (2015). Aloe vera as an alternative to traditional edible coatings used in fresh-cut fruits: A case of study with kiwifruit slices. LWT - Food Science and Technology 61:184-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.11.036

Best T, Howe P, Bryan J, Buckley J, Scholey A (2015). Acute effects of a dietary non-starch polysaccharide supplement on cognitive performance in healthy middle-aged adults. Nutritional Neuroscience 18(2):76-86. https://doi.org/10.1179/1476830513Y.0000000101

Brandham PE, Carter S, Reynolds T (1994). A multidisciplinary study of relationships among the cremnophilous aloes of northeastern Africa. Kew Bulletin 49(3):415-428. https://doi.org/10.2307/4114465

Cellini L, Di Bartolomeo S, Di Campli E, Genovese S, Locatelli M, Di Giulio M (2014). In vitro activity of Aloe vera inner gel against Helicobacter pylori strains. Letters in Applied Microbiology 59(1):43-48. https://doi.org/10.1111/lam.12241

Chandan BK, Saxena AK, Shukla S, Sharma N, Gupta DK, Suri KA, Suri J, Bhadauria M, Singh B (2007). Hepatoprotective potential of Aloe barbadensis Mill. against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111(3):560-566. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.01.008

Chen W, Van Wyk BE, Vermaak I, Viljoen AM (2012). Cape aloes - A review of the phytochemistry, pharmacology and commercialisation of Aloe ferox. Phytochemistry Letters 5(1):1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytol.2011.09.001

Chihara T, Shimpo K, Beppu H, Yamamoto N, Kaneko T, Wakamatsu K, Sonoda S (2015). Effects of aloe-emodin and emodin on proliferation of the MKN45 human gastric cancer cell line. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 16(9):3887-3891. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.9.3887

Choi S, Chung MH (2003). A review on the relationship between Aloe vera components and their biologic effects. In: Seminars in Integrative Medicine 1(1):53-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1543-1150(03)00005-X

Choi SW, Son BW, Son YS, Park YI, Lee SK, Chung MH (2001). The wound-healing effect of a glycoprotein fraction isolated from Aloe vera. British Journal of Dermatology 145:535-545. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2133.2001.04410.x

Cock IE (2015). The genus Aloe: Phytochemistry and therapeutic uses including treatments for gastrointestinal conditions and chronic inflammation. Progress in Drug Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-0348-0927-6_6

Cui Y, Cheng Y, Guo Y, Xie Y, Yao W, Zhang W, Qian H (2017). Evaluating the hepatoprotective efficacy of Aloe vera polysaccharides against subchronic exposure of aflatoxins B1. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 76:10-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2017.03.040

Cui Y, Ye Q, Wang H, Li Y, Yao W, Qian H (2014). Hepatoprotective potential of Aloe vera polysaccharides against chronic alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 94(9):1764-1771. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6489

Dagne E, Bisrat D, Viljoen A, Van Wyk B-E (2005). Chemistry of Aloe species. Current Organic Chemistry 4:1055-1078. https://doi.org/10.2174/1385272003375932

Dana N, Javanmard SH, Asgary S, Asnaashari H, Abdian N (2012). The effect of Aloe vera leaf gel on fatty streak formation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 17(5):439-442.

Das S, Mishra B, Gill K, Ashraf MS, Singh AK, Sinha M, … Dey S (2011). Isolation and characterization of novel protein with anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory properties from Aloe vera leaf gel. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 48(1):38-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2010.09.010

Dehdari S, Hajimehdipoor H, Esmaeili S, Choopani R, Mortazavi SA (2018). Traditional and modern aspects of hemorrhoid treatment in Iran: a review. Journal of Integrative Medicine 16(2):90-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joim.2018.01.002

Duansak D, Somboonwong J, Patumraj S (2003). Effects of Aloe vera on leukocyte adhesion and TNF-α and IL-6 levels in burn wounded rats. Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation.

Eamlamnam K, Patumraj S, Visedopas N, Thong-Ngam D (2006). Effects of Aloe vera and sucralfate on gastric microcirculatory changes, cytokine levels and gastric ulcer healing in rats. World Journal of Gastroenterology 12(13):2034-2039. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v12.i13.2034

Edis Z, Bloukh SH (2020). Facile synthesis of antimicrobial aloe vera-"smart" triiodide-PVP biomaterials. Biomimetics 5(3):45. https://doi.org/10.3390/BIOMIMETICS5030045

El Sayed AM, Ezzat SM, El Naggar MM, El Hawary SS (2016). In vivo diabetic wound healing effect and HPLC–DAD–ESI–MS/MS profiling of the methanol extracts of eight Aloe species. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 26:352-362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2016.01.009

Eshghi F, Hosseinimehr SJ, Rahmani N, Khademloo M, Norozi MS, Hojati O (2010). Effects of Aloe vera cream on posthemorrhoidectomy pain and wound healing: Results of a randomized, blind, placebo-control study. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 16(6):647-650. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2009.0428

Fan JJ, Li CH, Hu YJ, Chen H, Yang FQ (2018). Comparative assessment of in vitro thrombolytic and fibrinolysis activity of four Aloe species and analysis of their phenolic compounds by LC–MS. South African Journal of Botany 119:325-334. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2018.10.001

Froldi G, Baronchelli F, Marin E, Grison M (2019). Antiglycation activity and HT-29 cellular uptake of aloe-emodin, aloin, and aloe arborescens leaf extracts. Molecules 24(11):2128. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112128

Gaj F, Crispino P (2009). Chirurgia proctologica: Vantaggi derivanti dall’uso di un detergente innovativo nel post-operatorio. Clinica Terapeutica 160(3):211-213.

Glatthaar-Saalmüller B, Fal AM, Schönknecht K, Conrad F, Sievers H, Saalmüller A (2015). Antiviral activity of an aqueous extract derived from Aloe arborescens Mill. against a broad panel of viruses causing infections of the upper respiratory tract. Phytomedicine 22(10):911-920. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2015.06.006

Grace OM, Simmonds MSJ, Smith GF, Van Wyk AE (2009). Documented utility and biocultural value of Aloe L. (Asphodelaceae): A review. Economic Botany 63:167-178. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12231-009-9082-7

Grindlay D, Reynolds T (1986). The Aloe vera phenomenon: A review of the properties and modern uses of the leaf parenchyma gel. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 16(2-3):117-151. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(86)90085-1

Guo X, Mei N (2016). Aloe vera: A review of toxicity and adverse clinical effects. Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis and Ecotoxicology Reviews 34(2):77-96. https://doi.org/10.1080/10590501.2016.1166826

Gupta VK, Kumar A, Pereira M de L, Siddiqi NJ, Sharma B (2020). Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative potential of Aloe vera on the cartap and malathion mediated toxicity in wistar rats. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17(14):5177. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145177

Hamman JH (2008). Composition and applications of Aloe vera leaf gel. Molecules 13(8):1599-1616. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules13081599

Harris M, Brekke M, Dinant GJ, Esteva M, Hoffman R, Marzo-Castillejo M … Taylor G (2020). Primary care practitioners’ diagnostic action when the patient may have cancer: an exploratory vignette study in 20 European countries. BMJ Open 10(10):e035678. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-035678

Heinrich M (2001). People’s plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1315 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-8741(00)00308-1

Hsu SC, Chung JG (2012). Anticancer potential of emodin. BioMedicine (Netherlands) 2(3):108-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomed.2012.03.003

Huseini HF, Kianbakht S, Hajiaghaee R, Dabaghian FH (2012). Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypercholesterolemic effects of Aloe vera leaf gel in hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic patients: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Planta Medica 78(4):311-316. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0031-1280474

Jansisyanont P, Tiyapongprapan S, Chuenchompoonut V, Sangvanich P, Thunyakitpisal P (2016). The effect of acemannan sponges in post-extraction socket healing: A randomized trial. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology 28:105-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajoms.2015.07.006

Jiang CQ, Quan LT, Shi F, Yang N, Wang CH, Yin XM, Zheng QS (2014). Distribution of mineral nutrients and active ingredients in Aloe vera irrigated with diluted seawater. Pedosphere 24:722-730. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(14)60059-X

Josias H, Carien B, Alvaro V (2013). Modulation of drug efflux by aloe materials: An in vitro investigation across rat intestinal tissue. Pharmacognosy Magazine 9(1):S44-8. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1296.117864

Kamr A, Arbaga A, El-Bahrawy A, Elsify A, Khaled H, Hassan H (2020). The therapeutic efficacy of Aloe vera gel ointment on staphylococcal pyoderma in dogs. Veterinary World 13(11):2371-2380. https://doi.org/10.14202/VETWORLD.2020.2371-2380

King EG, Stanton ML (2008). Facilitative effects of aloe shrubs on grass establishment, growth, and reproduction in degraded Kenyan rangelands: Implications for restoration. Restoration Ecology 16:464-474. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2007.00310.x

Kumar SSD, Houreld NN, Abrahamse H (2020). Selective laser efficiency of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles by aloe arborescens and its wound healing activities in normal wounded and diabetic wounded fibroblast cells: In vitro studies. International Journal of Nanomedicine 16(15):6855-6870. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S257204

Langmead L, Makins RJ, Rampton DS (2004). Anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera gel in human colorectal mucosa in vitro. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 19(5):521-527. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2004.01874.x

Le N (1979). In defense of the name Aloe vera. The Cactus and Succulent Journal of Great Britain 41:29-30.

Lee HZ, Hsu SL, Liu MC, Wu CH (2001). Effects and mechanisms of aloe-emodin on cell death in human lung squamous cell carcinoma. European Journal of Pharmacology 431(3):287-295. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-2999(01)01467-4

Leistner OA (2000). Seed plants of southern Africa: families and genera. In: Seed plants of southern Africa: families and genera.

Liang J, Cui L, Li J, Guan S, Zhang K, Li J (2020). Aloe vera: a medicinal plant used in skin wound healing. Tissue Engineering Part B: Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1089/ten.teb.2020.0236

Liu C, Cui Y, Pi F, Cheng Y, Guo Y, Qian H (2019). Extraction, purification, structural characteristics, biological activities and pharmacological applications of acemannan, a polysaccharide from Aloe vera: A review. Molecules 24(8):1554. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081554

López A, De Tangil MS, Vega-Orellana O, Ramírez AS, Rico M (2013). Phenolic constituents, antioxidant and preliminary antimycoplasmic activities of leaf skin and flowers of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (syn. A. barbadensis Mill.) from the Canary Islands (Spain). Molecules 18(5):4942-4954. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18054942

Luiz C, da Rocha Neto AC, Franco PO, Di Piero RM (2017). Emulsions of essential oils and aloe polysaccharides: Antimicrobial activity and resistance inducer potential against Xanthomonas fragariae. Tropical Plant Pathology 42:370-381. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40858-017-0153-5

Maphosa V, Masika PJ, Bizimenyera ES, Eloff JN (2010). In-vitro anthelminthic activity of crude aqueous extracts of Aloe ferox, Leonotis leonurus and Elephantorrhiza elephantina against Haemonchus contortus. Tropical Animal Health and Production 42:301-307. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-009-9421-9

Martínez-Sánchez A, López-Cañavate ME, Guirao-Martínez J, Roca MJ, Aguayo E (2020). Aloe vera flowers, a byproduct with great potential and wide application, depending on maturity stage. Foods 9(11):1542. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111542

Misawa E, Tanaka M, Nabeshima K, Nomaguchi K, Yamada M, Toida T, Iwatsuki K (2012). Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 58(3):195-201. https://doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.58.195

Moein E, Hajimehdipoor H, Toliyat T, Choopani R, Hamzeloo-Moghadam M (2017). Formulation of an aloe-based product according to Iranian traditional medicine and development of its analysis method. DARU, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 25(1):19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40199-017-0185-x

Mukesh S, Patil MB, Shalini S, Vishnu B (2010). Aloe vera: Plant of immortality. International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research 1(1):7-10.

Ndhlala AR, Amoo SO, Stafford GI, Finnie JF, Van Staden J (2009). Antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and mutagenic investigation of the South African tree aloe (Aloe barberae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 124(3):404-408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2009.05.037

Nićiforović A, Adžić M, Spasić SD, Radojčić MB (2007). Antitumor effects of a natural anthracycline analog (aloin) involve altered activity of antioxidant enzymes in HeLaS3 cells. Cancer Biology and Therapy 6:1211-1216. https://doi.org/10.4161/cbt.6.8.4383

Nidiry ESJ, Ganeshan G, Lokesha AN (2011). Antifungal activity of some extractives and constituents of Aloe vera. Research Journal of Medicinal Plant 5:196-200. https://doi.org/10.3923/rjmp.2011.196.200

Oryan A, Mohammadalipour A, Moshiri A, Tabandeh MR (2016). Topical application of Aloe vera accelerated wound healing, modeling, and remodeling. Annals of Plastic Surgery 77:37-46. https://doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0000000000000239

Pan Q, Pan H, Lou H, Xu Y, Tian L (2013). Inhibition of the angiogenesis and growth of Aloin in human colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Cell International 13(1):69. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2867-13-69

Pareek OP, Sharma BD, Nath V, Singh RS, Bhargava R (1999). Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers and organic manure on growth and yield of Indian Aloe (Aloe barbadensis Mill.). Annals of Arid Zone 38(1):85-86.

Park MY, Kwon HJ, Sung MK (2009). Evaluation of aloin and aloe-emodin as anti-inflammatory agents in aloe by using murine macrophages. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry 73(4):828-832. https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.80714

Prabakaran S, Rajan M, Lv C, Meng G (2020). Lanthanides-substituted hydroxyapatite/Aloe vera composite coated titanium plate for bone tissue regeneration. International Journal of Nanomedicine 27(15):8261-8279. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S267632

Prueksrisakul T, Chantarangsu S, Thunyakitpisal P (2015). Effect of daily drinking of Aloe vera gel extract on plasma total antioxidant capacity and oral pathogenic bacteria in healthy volunteer: A short-term study. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine 12:159-164. https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2014-0060

Puia IC, Puia A (2013). Porcelain gallbladder and cancer - an association to be revised. Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases 22(3):358-359.

Quezada MP, Salinas C, Gotteland M, Cardemil L (2017). Acemannan and fructans from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) plants as novel prebiotics. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 65(46):10029-10039. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04100

Ray A, Aswatha SM (2013). An analysis of the influence of growth periods on physical appearance, and acemannan and elemental distribution of Aloe vera L. gel. Industrial Crops and Products 48:36-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.03.024

Riley HP (1959). Polyploidy in South African species of Aloe. American Journal of Botany 46(2):126-129. https://doi.org/10.2307/2439468

Salehi B, Albayrak S, Antolak H, Kręgiel D, Pawlikowska E, Sharifi-Rad M, … Sharifi-Rad J (2018). Aloe genus plants: From farm to food applications and phytopharmacotherapy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19(9):2843. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092843

Sánchez JT, García AV, Martínez-Abad A, Vilaplana F, Jiménez A, Garrigós MC (2020). Physicochemical and functional properties of active fish gelatin-based edible films added with Aloe vera gel. Foods 9(9):1248. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091248

Sánchez M, González-Burgos E, Iglesias I, Gómez-Serranillos MP (2020). Pharmacological update properties of Aloe vera and its major active constituents. Molecules 25(6):1324. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25061324

Sazhina NN, Lapshin PV, Zagoskina NV, Misin VM (2016). Comparative study of antioxidant properties of extracts of various Aloe species. Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry 42:735-740. https://doi.org/10.1134/S106816201607013X

Schmid R, van Wyk B-E, van Oudtshoorn B, Gericke N (1998). Medicinal plants of South Africa. Taxon. https://doi.org/10.2307/1223627

Shahzad MN, Ahmed N (2013). Effectiveness of Aloe vera gel compared with 1% silver sulphadiazine cream as burn wound dressing in second degree burns. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association 63(2):225-230.

Singab ANB, El-Hefnawy HM, Esmat A, Gad HA, Nazeam JA (2015). A systemic review on aloe arborescens pharmacological profile: biological activities and pilot clinical trials. Phytotherapy Research 29(12):1858-1867. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5483

Surakunprapha P, Winaikosol K, Chowchuen B, Punyavong P, Jenwitheesuk K, Jenwitheesuk K (2020). A prospective randomized double-blind study of silicone gel plus herbal extracts versus placebo in pre-sternal hypertrophic scar prevention and amelioration. Heliyon 6(5):e03883. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03883

Sydiskis RJ, Owen DG, Lohr JL, Rosler KHA, Blomster RN (1991). Inactivation of enveloped viruses by anthraquinones extracted from plants. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 35(12):2463-2466. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.35.12.2463

Tada A, Misawa E, Tanaka M, Saito M, Nabeshima K, Yamauchi K, … Kawada T (2020). Investigating anti-obesity effects by oral administration of Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE): Possible involvement in activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT). Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 66(2):176-184. https://doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.66.176

Tanaka M, Misawa E, Ito Y, Habara N, Nomaguchi K, Yamada M, … Higuchi R (2006). Identification of five phytosterols from Aloe vera gel as anti-diabetic compounds. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 29(7):1418-1422. https://doi.org/10.1248/bpb.29.1418

Tawaraya K, Turjaman M, Ekamawanti HA (2007). Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization on nitrogen and phosphorus uptake and growth of Aloe vera L. HortScience. https://doi.org/10.21273/hortsci.42.7.1737

Tizard IR, Carpenter RH, McAnalley BH, Kemp MC (1989). The biological activities of mannans and related complex carbohydrates. Molecular Biotherapy 1:290-296.

van Zyl RL, Viljoen AM, Jäger AK (2002). In vitro activity of Aloe extracts against Plasmodium falciparum. South African Journal of Botany 68:106-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0254-6299(16)30465-3

Vogler BK, Ernst E (1999). Aloe vera: A systematic review of its clinical effectiveness. British Journal of General Practice.

Wintola OA, Sunmonu TO, Afolayan AJ (2010). The effect of Aloe ferox Mill. In the treatment of loperamide-induced constipation in Wistar rats. BMC Gastroenterology 19(10):95. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-230X-10-95

Zapata PJ, Navarro D, Guillén F, Castillo S, Martínez-Romero D, Valero D, Serrano M (2013). Characterisation of gels from different Aloe spp. as antifungal treatment: Potential crops for industrial applications. Industrial Crops and Products 42:223-230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.06.002

Zhao HC, Qin R, Chen XX, Sheng X, Wu JF, Wang DB, Chen GH (2006). Microvessel density is a prognostic marker of human gastric cancer. World Journal of Gastroenterology 12(47):7598. https://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/full/v12/i47/7598.htm

Published
2021-06-03
How to Cite
PUIA, A., PUIA, C., MOIȘ, E., GRAUR, F., FETTI, A., & FLOREA, M. (2021). The phytochemical constituents and therapeutic uses of genus Aloe: A review . Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 49(2), 12332. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha49212332
Section
Review Articles
CITATION
DOI: 10.15835/nbha49212332