Impact of treated sewage water on nutrient status of alfisols and vegetable crops
Keywords:alfisols, nitrogen, organic carbon, treated sewage, vegetables
This study was conducted to determine the impact on the nutrient status of soil and vegetable crops irrigated with the treated sewage water. Three samples of water and five samples of soil and five commonly grown vegetables viz. radish, carrot, spinach, cauliflower, and potato were collected from Ganjia, Arail and Dandi located in Naini, Allahabad (India). The water samples were analysed for pH, EC, and heavy metals (Pb2+, Cr3+, Cd2+ and Ni2+) concentration. Water samples from all the sites were alkaline with EC below the safe limits. The soil and plant samples from all the three sites showed that Gangia recorded the highest value of EC (dS m-1), organic carbon (OC) (%), available NPK (kg ha-1), and micronutrients concentration (Mn2+, Zn2+ and Fe2+) (mg kg-1) whereas, the lowest concentration was recorded at Dandi followed by Arail. The soil samples collected from all three sites were alkaline. The nutrient status (N, P and K) showed the highest value in potato in the three sites, whereas manganese and zinc showed the highest value in spinach and iron in carrot. The study concludes that treated sewage water used for irrigation has a positive impact on nutrient status in soils and as well as in vegetable crops.
Akınbile CO, Ogunrınde TA, Che BT, Man H, Aziz HA (2016). Phytoremediation of domestic wastewaters in free water surface constructed wetlands using Azolla pinnata. International Journal of Phytoremediation 18:54-61. https://doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2015.1058330
Akhtar S, Iram S, Hassan M, Suther V, Ahmad R (2014). Heavy metal concentration in peri-urban soils and crops under untreated wastewater. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research 5(9):523-535.
Amin N, Hussain A, Alamzeb S, Begüm S (2012). Accumulation of heavy metals in edible parts of vegetables irrigated with waste water and their daily intake to adults and children, District Mardan Pakistan. Food Chemistry 136:1515-1523. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.09.058
APHA (1998). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, Washington, USA.
Blum WEH, Horak O, Mentler A (2012). Trace elements. In: Sabljic A (Ed). Environmental and Ecological Chemistry. Oxford: UNESCO-EOLSS, pp 156-164.
Chandra R, Bharagava R, Yadav S, Mohan D (2009). Accumulation and distribution of toxic metals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Indian mustard (Brassica campestris L.) irrigated with distillery and tannery effluents. Journal of Hazardous Materials 162(2-3):1514-1521. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.06.040
Chang CY, Yu HY, Chen JJ, Li FB, Zhang HH, Liu CP (2013). Accumulation of heavy metals in leaf vegetables from agricultural soils and associated potential health risks in the Pearl River Delta, South China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 186(3):1547-1560. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-013-3472-0
CPCB (2007). Evaluation of operation and maintenance of sewage treatment plants in India-2007. Control of Urban Pollution Series: CUPS/68/2007, Central Pollution Control Board, India.
Farid M, Irshad M, Fawad M, Ali Z, Eneji Ae, Aurangzeb N, … Ali B (2014). Effect of cyclic phytoremediation with different wetland plants on municipal wastewater. International Journal of Phytoremediation 16:572-581. https://doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2013.798623
FAO/WHO (2011). Joint FAO/WHO food standards programme codex committee on contaminants in foods, Food CF/5 INF/1. Fifth Session. Hague, Netherlands, pp 13-18.
Ghosh AK, Bhatt MA, Agrawal HP (2012). Effect of long-term application of treated sewage water on heavy metal accumulation in vegetables grown in Northern India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 184:1025-1036. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-2018-6
Gupta N, Khan DK, Santra SC (2008) An assessment of heavy metal contamination in vegetables grown in waste water-irrigated areas of Titagarh, West Bengal, India. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 80:115-118. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-007-9327-z
Iqbal HH, Taseer R, Anwar S (2015). Human health risk assessment: Heavy metal contamination of vegetables in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Bulletin of Environmental Studies 1(1):10-17.
Jones JB, Wolf B, Mills HA (1991). Plant analysis handbook. Micro-Macro Publishing, USA.
Kashif SR, Akram M, Yaseen M, Ali S (2009). Studies on heavy metals status and their uptake by vegetables in adjoining areas of Hudiara drain in Lahore. Plant Soil and Environment 28(1):7-12.
Kaur R, Wani SP, Singh AK, Lal K (2012). Wastewater production, treatment and use in India. National Report presented at the 2nd regional workshop on Safe Use of Wastewater in Agriculture, India.
Khalid S, Shahid M, Dumat C, Niazi NK, Bibi L, Gul Bakhat HFS, … Javeed HMR (2017). Influence of groundwater and wastewater irrigation on lead accumulation in soil and vegetables: Implications for health risk assessment and phytoremediation. International Journal of Phytoremediation 19(11):1037-1046. https://doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2017.1319330
Khan A, Javid S, Muhmood A, Majeed T, Niaz A, Mjeed A (2013). Heavy metal status of soil and vegetables grown on peri-urban area of Lahore district. Soil & Environment 32(1):49-54.
Khan SA, Liu X, Shah BR, Fan W, Li H, Khan SB, Ahmad Z (2015). Metals uptake by wastewater irrigated vegetables and their daily dietary intake in Peshawar, Pakistan. Ecological Chemistry and Engineering 22(1):125-139. https://doi.org/10.1515/eces-2015-0008
Khanum K, Baqar M, Qadir A, Mümtaz M, Tahir A, Jamil A, Mahmood A (2017). Heavy metal toxicity and human health risk surveillances of wastewater irrigated vegetables in Lahore District, Pakistan. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences 12(2):403-412.
Kıran DL, Krishna DL, Vivek SM, Ramteke DS (2012). Impact of domestic wastewater irrigation on soil properties and crop yield. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 2:1-7.
Kumar V, Chopra AK, Srivastava S, Chauhan RK (2015). Accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables grown in wastewater irrigated soil in Haridwar (Uttarakhand), India. Agricultural Science Research Journal 5(11):146-152.
Lone AH, Lal EP, Thakur S, Ganie SA, Wani MS, Khare A, … Wani FA (2013). Accumulation of heavy metals on soil and vegetable crops grown on sewage and tube well water irrigation. Scientific Research and Essays 8(44):2187-2193. https://doi.org/10.5897/SRE2013.5636
Lone MI, Saleem S, Khan KS, Mahmood T, Hussain G (2003). Heavy metal contents of vegetables irrigated by sewage/tubewell water in Hassanabadal area. Pakistan Journal of Arid Agriculture 6:65-68.
Mahmood A, Malik RN (2014). Human health risk assessment of heavy metals via consumption of contaminated vegetables collected from different irrigation sources in Lahore, Pakistan. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 7:91-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.07.002
Malla R, Totawat KL (2006). Effect of municipal on soil properties and chemical build-up in vegetable crops grown on Haplustepts of sub-humid Southern plain Rajasthan. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 54:226-231.
Mani D, Sharma B, Kumar C, Balak S (2013). Depth-wise distribution, mobility and naturally occurring glutathione based phytoaccumulation of cadmium and zinc in sewage-irrigated soil profiles. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 10(6):1167-1180. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-012-0121-z
Maya R, Mhaske AR, Balpande SS, Gawande SN (2016). Impact of food industry effluent on soil and crops of Gumthala Village in Nagpur District. International Journal of Agriculture Sciences 8(52):2500-2503.
Mitra A, Gupta SK (1999) Effect of sewage water irrigation on essential plant nutrient and pollutant element status in a vegetables growing area around Calcutta. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 47:99-105.
Morugan-Coronado A, Garcia-Orenes F, Mataix-Solera J, Arcenegui V, Mataix-Beneyto J (2011). Short-term effects of treated wastewater irrigation on Mediterranean calcareous soil. Soil and Tillage Research 112(1):18-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2010.11.004
Murtaza G, Ghafoor A, Qadir M, Owens G, Aziz M, Zia M (2010). Disposal and use of sewage on agricultural lands in Pakistan: A review. Pedosphere 20:23-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(09)60279-4
Ozturk M, Altay V, Karahan F (2017). Studies on trace elements distributed in Glycyrrhiza taxa in Hatay-Turkey. International Journal of Plant and Environment 3(2):1-7. https://doi.org/10.18811/ijpen.v3i02.10431
Ozturk M, Alyanak I, Sakcali S, Güvensen A (2005). Multipurpose plant systems for renovation of waste waters. The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering 30(2):17-28.
Ozturk M, Gucel S, Sakcali S, Güvensen A (2011). An overview of the possibilities for wastewater utilization for agriculture in Turkey. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 59:223-234.
Ozturk M, Ashraf M, Aksoy A, Ahmad MSA, Hakeem KR (2015). Plants, pollutants and remediation. Springer Science + Business Media Dordrecht.
Parashar P, Prasad FM (2013). Study of heavy metal accumulation in sewage irrigated vegetables in different regions of Agra District, India. Open Journal of Soil Science 3:1-8. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojss.2013.31001
Patel KP, Pandya RR, Maliwal GL, Patel KC, Ramani VP, George V (2004) Heavy metal content in different effluents and their relative availability in soil irrigated with effluent water around major industrial cities of Gujarat. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 52:89-94.
Perveen S, Samad A, Nazif W, Shah S (2012). Impact of sewage water on vegetables quality with respect to heavy metals in Peshawar, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 44(6):1923-1931.
Pourrut B, Shahid M, Dumat C, Winterton P, Pinelli E (2011). Lead uptake, toxicity, and detoxification in plants. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 213:113-136. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-9860-6_4
Qureshi AS, Hussain ML, İsmail S, Khan QM (2016). Evaluating heavy metal accumulation and potential health risks in vegetables irrigated with treated wastewater. Chemosphere 163:54-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.07.073
Randhawa MA, Ahmad G, Anjum FM, Asghar A, Sajid MW (2014). Heavy metal contents and their daily intake in vegetables under peri-urban farming system of Multan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 51(4):1025-1031.
Rapheal O, Adebayo KS (2011). Assessment of trace heavy metal contaminations of some selected vegetables irrigated with water from river Benue within Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State Nigeria. Advances in Applied Science Research 2:590-601.
Reddy MAN, Ramchandra R, Reddy YTN, Reddy NN, Anjappa M, Reddy R (1998). Effect of organic and inorganic source of N, P, K on growth and yield of pea. Legume Research 21:57-62.
Rojas-Valencia MN, Orta De Velasquez MT, Franco V (2011). Urban agriculture, using sustainable practices that involve the rense of wastewater and solid waste. Agricultural Water Management 98(9):1388-1394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2011.04.005
Saraswat PK, Tiwari RC, Agarwal HP, Sanjay K (2005). Micronutrient status of soils and vegetable crops irrigated with treated sewage water. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 53:111-115.
Shaheen N, Irfan NM, Khan IN, İslam S, İslam H-S, Ahmed MK (2016). Presence of heavy metals in fruits and vegetables: Health risk implications in Bangladesh. Chemosphere 152:431-438. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.02.060
Sharma N, Bhardwaj S, Srivastava PK, Thanki Y, Gadhia P, Gadhia M (2012). Soil chemical changes resulting from irrigating with petrochemical effluents. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 9:361-370. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-012-0039-5
Singh A, Sharma RK, Agarwal M, Marshall FM (2010). Risk assessment of heavy metal toxicity through contaminated vegetables from waste water irrigated area of Varanasi, India. Tropical Ecology 51(2):375-387.
Singh RS, Singh RR (1994). Differential toxicity of heavy metals to growth and nitrate reductase activities of Sesaniun indicum seedlings. Phytochemistry 35:1153- 1156. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)94812-X
Singh S, Kumar M (2006). Heavy metal load of soil, water and vegetables in peri-urban Delhi. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 120(1-3):79-91. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-005-9050-3
Singh SP, Verloo MG (1996). Accumulation of bioavailability of metals in semi-arid soils irrigated with sewage effluent. Mededelingen FLTBW 60:63-67.
Tiwari KK, Singh NK, Patel MP, Tiwari MP, Rai UN (2011). Metal contamination of soil and translocation in vegetables growing under industrial wastewater irrigated agricultural field of Vadodara, Gujarat, India. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 74(6):1670-1677. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2011.04.029
Verma P, Agrawal M, Sağar R (2015). Assessment of potential health risks due to heavy metals through vegetable consumption in a tropical area irrigated by treated wastewater. Environment Systems and Decisions 35(3):375-388. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10669-015-9558-1
Wantong SI, Liu J, Cai L, Jiang H, Zheng C, He X, Zhang X (2014). Health risks of metals in contaminated farmland soils and spring wheat irrigated with Yellow River water in Baotou, China. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 94(2):214-219. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-014-1435-y
WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) (2007). National surface water classification criteria and irrigation water quality guidelines for Pakistan. Hudiara Drain Project Phase II, funded by UNDP under GEF small grants programme. World Wide Fund for Nature, Lahore, Pakistan, pp 12-26.
Xiong T, Dumat C, Pierart A, Shahid M, Kang Y, Li N, … Laplanche C (2016). Measurement of metal bio accessibility in vegetables to improve human exposure assessments: field study of soil-plant-atmosphere transfers in urban areas, South China. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 38:1283-1301. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-016-9796-2
Xue ZJ, Liu SQ, Liu YL, Yan YL (2012). Health risk assessment of heavy metals for edible parts of vegetables grown in sewage irrigated soils in suburbs of Baoding City, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 184:3503-3513. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-2204-6
Yadav RK, Goyal B, Sharma RK, Dubey SK, Minhas PS (2002). Post irrigation impact of domestic sewage effluent on composition of soils, crops grown there upon and ground water - A case study. Environment International 28:481-486. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(02)00070-3
Yang Q, Xu Y, Liu S, He J, Long F (2011). Concentration and potential health risk of heavy metals in market vegetables in Chongqing, China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 74:1664-1669. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2011.05.006
Zia MH, Watts MJ, Niaz A, Middleton DR, Kim AE (2016). Health risk assessment of potentially harmful elements and dietary minerals from vegetables irrigated with untreated wastewater, Pakistan. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 39(4):707-728. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-016-9841-1
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.