Glycine-betaine induced salinity tolerance in maize by regulating the physiological attributes, antioxidant defense system and ionic homeostasis


  • Zain DUSTGEER University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Department of Botany, Faisalabad, 38040 (PK)
  • Mahmoud F. SELEIMAN King Saud University, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, Plant Production Department, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451; Menoufia University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Crop Sciences, Shibin El-kom 32514 (SA)
  • Imran KHAN University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Department of Agronomy, Faisalabad, 38040 (PK)
  • Muhammad U. CHATTHA University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Department of Agronomy, Faisalabad, 38040 (PK)
  • Esmat F. ALI Taif University, College of Science, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944 (SA)
  • Bushra A. ALHAMMAD Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, College of Science and Humanity Studies, Biology Department, Al Kharj Box 292, Riyadh 11942 (SA)
  • Rewaa S. JALAL University of Jeddah, College of Sciences, Department of Biology, Jeddah (SA)
  • Yahya REFAY King Saud University, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, Plant Production Department, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451 (SA)
  • Muhammad U. HASSAN University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Department of Agronomy, Faisalabad, 38040 (PK)



antioxidants; growth, glycine-betaine; nutrients accumulation; photosynthesis; salt stress; soluble proteins


The plants are exposed to different abiotic stresses, including the salinity stress (SS) that negatively affect the growth, metabolism, physiological and biochemical processes. Thus, this study investigated the effect of diverse levels of foliar-applied GB (0 control, 50 mM and 100 mM) on maize growth, membrane stability, physiological and biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzymes and nutrients accumulation under different levels of SS (i.e., control, 6 dS m-1, 12 dS m-1). Salt stress diminished the root and shoot length, root and shoot biomass, chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), relative water contents (RWC), soluble proteins (SP) and free amino acids; (FAA); and increased activities of antioxidant enzymes, electrical conductivity (EC) and accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), Na+ and Cl ions. GB application significantly increased root and shoot growth, leaves per plant, shoots length, chlorophyll contents, gs, Pn and membrane stability by reducing MDA and H2O2 accumulation. Moreover, GB also increased the SP, FAA accumulation, activities of antioxidant enzymes and Na+ and Cl- exclusion by favouring Ca2+ and K+ accumulation. In conclusion, the foliar-applied GB increased Pn, gs, ant-oxidants activities, and accumulation of SP and FAA; and reduced the accretion of Na+ and Cl by favouring the Ca2+ and K+ accretion which in turns improved growth under SS.


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How to Cite

DUSTGEER, Z. ., SELEIMAN, M. F., KHAN, I. ., CHATTHA, M. U. ., ALI, E. F., ALHAMMAD, B. A. ., JALAL, R. S., REFAY, Y. ., & HASSAN, M. U. . (2021). Glycine-betaine induced salinity tolerance in maize by regulating the physiological attributes, antioxidant defense system and ionic homeostasis. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 49(1), 12248.



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha49112248

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