Effects of water scarcity and salinity on the anatomy of the Tunisian table olive cultivar ‘Meski’

  • Dhouha SAIDANA NAIJA Olive Tree Institute, Ibn Khaldoun BP 14, 4061, Sousse (TN)
  • Samia BEN MANSOUR GUEDDES Olive Tree Institute, Ibn Khaldoun BP 14, 4061, Sousse (TN)
  • Mohamed BRAHAM Olive Tree Institute, Ibn Khaldoun BP 14, 4061, Sousse (TN)
Keywords: anatomical adaptations, drought, olive, moderate stress, salinity, severe stress

Abstract

The table olive cultivar ‘Meski’ was subjected to two stresses related to water, scarcity, and salinity. Anatomical adaptations of leaves, stems and roots were studied and compared, to value the water use efficiency of the tree. Two stress levels were adopted corresponding to moderate and severe levels. Thus, the trees behaviour was influenced by the stress type and intensity. The aerial part of the trees showed more adaptation modes than the underground part. Under both stresses, plants have fortified the protection of the leaf tissues by developing upper envelope and multiplying the trichomes. Plants reinforced the support tissues by multiplying the collenchyma and sclereids, and have amplified the transport tissues by enhancing vascularity through multiplying the number of conductive vessels. However, different behaviours seemed to be specific to each stress such an enlargement of liber and reduction of wood in the drought stress and a restriction of liber and wood tissues in salt stress. Additionally, a retraction of the palisade parenchyma and an extension of the spongy parenchyma in drought stress inversely to salt stress were noted. In the treated stems and roots, development of stomata, suber, pericyclic fiber and liber, and a restriction of wood especially in severe stress were observed. The plants developed important changes in moderate stresses; however, in the severe, the plants seemed to be stressed, by presenting no significant changes relatively to the control.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Bacelar EA, Correia, CM, Moutinho-Pereira JM, Gonçalves BC, Lopes JI, Torres-Pereira JM (2004). Sclerophylly and leaf anatomical traits of five field grown olive cultivars growing under drought conditions. Tree Physiology 24:233-239. https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/24.2.233

Bacelar EA, Moutinho-Pereira JM, Gonçalves BC, Ferreira HF, Correia CM (2007). Changes in growth, gas exchange, xylem hydraulic properties and water use efficiency of three olive cultivars under contrasting water availability regimes. Environmental and Experimental Botany 60:183-192.

Bacelar EA, Moutinho-Pereira JM, Gonçalves BC, Lopes JI, Correia CM (2009). Physiological responses of different olive genotypes to drought conditions. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 31:611-621. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-009-0272-9

Bacelar EA, Santos DL, Moutinho-Pereira, JM, Gonçalves, BC, Ferreira HF, Correia CM (2006). Immediate responses and adaptative strategies of three olive cultivars under contrasting water availability regimes: Changes on structure and chemical composition of foliage and oxidative damage. Plant Science 170:596-605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2005.10.014

Bongi G, Mencuccini M, Fontanazza G (1987). Photosynthesis of olive leaves: effect of light flux density, leaf age, temperature, peltates and H2O vapour pressure deficit on gas exchange. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 112:143-148.

Ben Abdallah S, Elfkih S, Fourati H, Abdelkafi B (2014). Etude stratégique de la filière olive de table en Tunisie: Cas des zones de Grand Tunis et Beja.New Medit: Mediterranean Journal of Economics, Agriculture and Environment 13(4):20.

Canne-Hilliker J, Kampny C (1990). Taxonomic significance of leaf and stem anatomy of Agalinis (Scrophulariaceae) from the USA and Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany 69:1935-1950.

Chartzoulakis K, Patakas A, Bosabalidis AM (1999). Changes in water relations, photosynthesis and leaf anatomy induced by intermittent drought in two olive cultivars. Environmental and Experimental Botany 42:113-120.

Chen KM, Wang F, Wang YH, Chen T, Hu YX, Lin JX (2006). Anatomical and chemical characteristics of foliar vascular bundles in four reed ecotypes adapted to different habitats.Flora 201:555-569. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2005.12.003

Dasgupta S, Laplante B, Meisner C, Wheeler D, Jianping Yan J (2007). The impact of sea level rise on developing countries: a comparative analysis. World Bank Policy Research Paper No. 4136. Washington D.C.

Dichio B, Montanaro G, Sofo A, Xiloyannis C (2013). Stem and whole-plant hydraulics in olive (Oleaeuropaea) and kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa). Trees 27:183-191. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-012-0787-3

Ennajeh M, Vadel AM, Cochard H, Khemira H (2010). Comparative impacts of water stress on the leaf anatomy of a drought-resistant and a drought-sensitive olive cultivar. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 85(4):289-294. https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2010.11512670

Esau K (1965). Plant anatomy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York/London/Sydney.

Fayek MA, Fayed TA, Emtithal H, El-Sayed E, Abd El-Hameed E (2018). Comparative impacts of salt stress on survival and leaf anatomy traits in olive genotypes. Bioscience Research 15(2):565-574.

Foster S, Chilton J, Moench M, Cardy F, Schiffler M (2008). Groundwater in rural development: facing the challenges of supply and resource sustainability. Water P-Notes; World Bank, Washington, DC. No. 19.

Galán GMJ, Cruz S, Barcelo D (2008). Identification and determination of metabolites and degradation products of sulfonamide antibiotics: advanced MS analysis of metabolites and degradation products – II. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 27(11):1008-1022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2008.10.001

Grill D, Tausz M, Pöllinger U, Jimenez MS, Morales D (2004). Effects of drought on needle anatomy of Pinus canariensis. Flora 199:85-89. https://doi.org/10.1078/0367-2530-00137

Hassani A, Dhia S, Mostefa K, Farid B, Benchaben H, Belkhodja M (2014). Mechanism of salinity tolerance in oleaster and cultivated Olive tree: physiological and morphological characterization of the foliar system. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science 3(12):1542-1551. https://doi.org/10.9734/IJPSS/2014/11307

Hassen I, Hamzaoui-Azaza F, Bouhlila R (2016). Application of multivariate statistical analysis and hydrochemical and isotopic investigations for evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agriculture purposes: case of Oum Ali-Thelepte aquifer, central Tunisia. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science 188(3):135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5124-7

Hoagland DR, Arnon DI (1938). The water-culture method for growingplants without soil. California Agricultural Experiment Station Circular Berkley, CA, University of California. No 347.

IPPC (2013). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Climate Change 2013. The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Stocker TF et al. (Eds). Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.

IOC (2020). International Olive Council Newsletter. Príncipe de Vergara, Madrid, Nº 154.

Karabourniotis, G, Papastergiou, N, Kabanopoulou, E, Fasseas C (1994). Foliar sclereids of Olea europaea may function as optical fibres. Canadian Journal of Botany 72(3):330-336.

Karimi E, Abdolzadeha A, Sadeghipoura HR (2009). Increasing salt tolerance in olive, Olea europaea L. plants by supplemental potassium nutrition involves changes in ion accumulation and anatomical attributes. International Journal of Plant Production 3(4):49-60.

Keiper FJ, Chen DM, De Filippis FL (1998). Respiratory, photosynthetic and ultrastructural changes accompanying salt adaptation in culture of Eucalyptus microcorys. The Journal of Plant Physiology 152:564-573. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0176-1617(98)80278-2

Khabou W, Ben Amar F, Rekik H, Bekhir M, Touir A (2009). Performance evaluation of olive trees irrigated by treated wastewater. Desalination 248:8-15.

Krasensky J, Jonak C (2012). Drought, salt, and temperature stress-induced metabolic rearrangements and regulatory networks. Journal of Experimental Botany 63:1593-1608. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/err460

LerouxO (2012). Collenchyma: a versatile mechanical tissue with dynamic cell walls. Annals of Botany 110:1083-1098. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcs186

Locy RD, Chang CC, Nielson BL, Singh NK (1996). Photosynthesis in salt-adapted heterotrophic tobacco cells and regenerated plants. Plant Physiology 110:321-328.https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.110.1.321

Lopez FB, Barclay GF (2017). Plant anatomy and physiology. In: Pharmacognosy. Academic Press, pp 45-60.

Luković J, Maksimović I, Zorić L, Nagl N, Milorad Perci Ć, Polić D, Putnik-Delic M (2009). Histological characteristics of sugar beet leaves potentially linked to drought tolerance. Industrial Crops and Products 30:281-286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2009.05.004

Makbul S, Saruhan Güler N, Durmuş N, Güven S(2011). Changes in anatomical and physiological parameters of soybean under drought stress. Turkish Journal of Botany 35:369-377. https://doi.org/10.3906/bot-1002-7

Mohsen AM, El-Mosallamy HM, ElHefnawy SM (1987). Some anatomical features of guava seedless in response to soil moisture and soil salinity. I- Leaf structure. Zagazig Journal of Agriculture Research 14(1):1-22.

Nomir SAE (1994). Physiological studies on Kaki (Diospyras Kaki. L). PhD Thesis, Fac. Agric. Zagazig. Univ., Egypt.

Pan C, Ng KTW, Richter A (2017). Hydrochemical assessment of groundwater quality near Regina municipal landfill. Sardinia ‘17, 16th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Santa Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy.

Pan C, Ng KTW, Richter A (2019). An integrated multivariate statistical approach for the evaluation of spatial variations in groundwater quality near an unlined landfill. Environmental Science and Pollution Research Journal 26:5724-5737. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3967-x

Parida AK, Das AB, Mittra B (2004). Effects of salt on growth, ion accumulation, photosynthesis and leaf anatomy of the mangrove, Bruguiera parviflora. Trees 18:167-174.https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-003-0293-8

Radhouane L (2013). Climate change impacts on North African countries and on some Tunisian economic sectors. Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development 107(1):101-113. https://doi.org/10.12895/jaeid.20131.123

Rook, F, Hadingham SA, Li Y, Bevab MW (2006). Sugar and ABA response pathways and the control of gene expression. Plant, Cell & Environment 29:426-434.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2005.01477.x

Salama S, Trivedi S, Bushera M, Arafa AA, Garab G, Erdei L (1994). Effects of NaCl salinity on growth, cation accumulation, chloroplasts structure and function in wheat cultivars differing in salt tolerance. Journal of Plant Physiology 144:241-247. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0176-1617(11)80550-X

Savé R, Biel C, de Herralde F (2000). Leaf pubescence, water relations and chlorophyll fluorescence in two

subspecies of Lotus Creticus L Biologia Plantarum 43:239-244. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1002704327076

Sherin AS (2002). Studies on growth of olive plants under salt stress. Department of Pomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University.

Thalmann M, Santelia D (2017). Starch as a determinant of plant fitness under abiotic stress. New Phytologist 214:943-951. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.14491

Torres-Ruiz JM, Diaz-Espejo A, Morales-Sillero A, Martín-Palomo MJ, Mayr S, Beikircher B, Fernández JE (2013). Shoot hydraulic characteristics, plant water status and stomatal response in olive trees under different soil water conditions. Plant and Soil 373:77-87.

Wu Y, Cosgrove DJ (2000). Adaptation of root to low water potentials by changes in cell wall extensibility and cell wall proteins. Journal of Experimental Botany 51(350):1543-1553. https://doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/51.350.1543

Yentür S (2003). Bitki Anatomisi. İstanbul Üniversitesi, Fen Fakültesi, Biyoloji Bölümü, No: 227, İstanbul.

Zhao C, Zhang H, Song C, Zhu JK, Shabala S (2020). Mechanisms of plant responses and adaptation to soil salinity. The Innovation 1(1):1-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xinn.2020.100017

Published
2021-11-30
How to Cite
SAIDANA NAIJA, D., BEN MANSOUR GUEDDES, S., & BRAHAM, M. (2021). Effects of water scarcity and salinity on the anatomy of the Tunisian table olive cultivar ‘Meski’. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 49(4), 12157. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha49412157
Section
Research Articles
CITATION
DOI: 10.15835/nbha49412157

Most read articles by the same author(s)