Prunus spinosa L. leaf extracts: polyphenol profile and bioactivities
Prunus spinosa leaf extracts in solvents of different polarity (water, ethanol and acetone), their phenol, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents and biological properties were the object of this study. The richest in phenols as well as in flavonoids was acetone extract with 181.19 mg GAE and 80.10 mg QE per gram of dry extract, respectively. Moreover, the quantity of anthocyanins obtained by HPLC analysis was also the highest in acetone sample. Examined samples possessed antioxidant properties evaluated through four in vitro assays (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and TRC). The acetone extract was proved to be the best antioxidant among tested samples, which could be ascribed to polyphenols, especially anthocyanins. The aqueous and the ethanol extract exhibited antibacterial effects, being particularly active against B. cereus and E. cloacae. T. viride, P. funiculosum, P. ochrochloron, P. verrucosum var. cyclopium were the most susceptible among fungal microorganisms examined. Both, the aqueous and the ethanol extract expressed inhibitory activity towards enzymes linked to diabetes mellitus type II. Additionally, the ethanol extract showed significantly higher potential in inhibiting α-glucosidase than the drug used as the positive control. Furthermore, the aqueous sample revealed antitumor effects on following malignant cell lines: HeLa, K562 and MDA-MB-453. The results presented herein suggest that P. spinosa leaves should be considered as a natural source of bioactive compounds with potential application in phytopharmacy and food industry.
Barros L, Carvalho AM, Morais JS, Ferreira IC (2010). Strawberry-tree, blackthorn and rose fruits: Detailed characterisation in nutrients and phytochemicals with antioxidant properties. Food Chemistry 120(1):247-254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.10.016
Benzie IFF, Strain JJ (1996). The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of antioxidant power: The FRAP assay. Analytical Biochemistry 239:70-76. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0003269796902924
Blois MS (1958). Antioxidant determination by use of stable free radical. Nature 181:1199-1200. https://doi.org/10.1038/1811199a0
Castro-Lόpez C, Ventura-Sobrevilla JM, González-Hernández MD, Rojas R, Ascacio-Valdés JA, Aquilar CN, Martínez-Ávila GCG (2017). Impact of extraction techniques on antioxidant capacities and phytochemical composition of polyphenol-rich extracts. Food Chemistry 237:1139-1148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.06.032
Cosmulescu S, Trandafir I, Nour, V (2017). Phenolic acids and flavonoids profile of extracts from edible wild fruit and their antioxidant properties. International Journal of Food Properties 20(12):3124-3134. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2016.1274906
Diaconeasa Z, Ayvaz H, Rugina D, Leopold L, Stanila A, Socaciu C, … Jefferson A (2017). Melanoma inhibition by anthocyanins is associated with the reduction of oxidative stress biomarkers and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 72(4):404-410. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-017-0638-x
Fraternale D, Giamperi L, Bucchini A, Sestili P, Paolillo M, Ricci D (2009). Prunus spinosa fresh fruit juice: antioxidant activity in cell-free and cellular systems. Natural product communications 4(12):1934578X0900401211. https://doi.org/10.1177/1934578X0900401211
Gegiu G, Branza AD, Bucur L, Grigorian M, Tache T, Badea V (2015). Contributions to antimicrobial and antifungal study of Prunus spinosa L. Farmacia 63(2):275-279. http://www.revistafarmacia.ro/201502/art-18-Gegiu_275-279.pdf
He JH, Chen LX, Li H (2019). Progress in the discovery of naturally occurring anti-diabetic drugs and in identification of their molecular targets. Fitoterapia 134:270-289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2019.02.033
Hussain G, Rasul A, Anwar H, Aziz N, Razzaq A, Wei W, … Li X (2018). Role of plant derived alkaloids and their mechanism in neurodegenerative disorders. International Journal of Biological Sciences 14(3):341-357. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.23247
Jovanović B (1972). Prunus L. In: Tatić B, Josifović M, Stjepanović L, Janković MM, Gajić M, Kojić M, Diklić N (Eds). Flora S.R. Srbije, Vol 4. SANU, Beograd, Srbija pp 179.
Karabegović IT, Stojičević SS, Veličković DT, Todorović ZB, Nikolić NČ, Lazić ML (2014). The effect of different extraction techniques on the composition and antioxidant activity of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) leaf and fruit extracts. Industrial Crops and Products 54(2014):142-148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.12.047
Karakas N, Okur ME, Oztruk I, Ayla S, Karadag AE, Polat DÇ (2019). Antioxidant activity of blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) fruit extract and cytotoxic effects on various cancer cell lines. Medeniyet Medical Journal 34:297-304. https://doi.org/10.5222/MMJ.2019.87864
Kostić M, Smiljković M, Petrović J, Glamočlija J, Barros L, Ferreira IC, … Soković M (2017). Chemical, nutritive composition and a wide range of bioactive properties of honey mushroom Armillaria mellea (Vahl: Fr.) Kummer. Food & Function 8(9):3239-3249. https://doi.org/10.1039/C7FO00887B
Kruger MJ, Davies N, Myburgh KH, Lecour S (2014). Proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and cardiovascular diseases. Food Research International 59:41-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.01.046
Kumarasamy Y, Cox PJ, Jaspars M, Nahar L, Sarker SD (2004). Comparative studies on biological activities of Prunus padus and P. spinosa. Fitoterapia 75(1):77-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2003.08.011
Lee S, Jun W (2001). A phylogenetic analysis of Prunus and the Amygdaloideae (Rosaceae) using ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. American Journal of Botany 88(1):150-160. https://doi.org/10.2307/2657135
Li H, Tsao R, Deng Z (2012). Factors affecting antioxidant potential and health benefits of plant foods. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 92:1101-1111. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjps2011-239
Meschini S, Pellegrini E, Condello M, Occhionero G, Delfine S, Condello G, Mastrodonato F (2017). Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Prunus spinosa Trigno ecotype extract on human cancer cells. Molecules 22(9):1578. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091578
Miller N, Rice-Evans C (1997). Factors influencing the antioxidant activity determined by the ABTS radical cation assay. Free Radical Research 26:195-199. https://doi.org/10.3109/10715769709097799
Mosmann T (1983). Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. Journal of Immunological Methods 65:55-63.
Ohno M, Abe T (1991). Rapid colorimetric assay for the quantification of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Journal of Immunological Methods 145:199-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1759(91)90327-C
Owczarek A, Magiera A, Matczak M, Piotrowska DG, Olszewska MA, Marchelak A (2016). Optimisation of preparative HPLC separation of four isomeric kaemferol diglycosides from Prunus spinosa L. by application of the response surface methodology. Phytochemistry Letters 20:415-424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytol.2017.01.010
Oyaizu M (1986). Studies on product of browning reaction prepared from glucose amine. Japanese Journal of Nutrition 44:307-315. https://doi.org/10.5264/eiyogakuzashi.44.307
Park JW, Yuk HG, Lee SC (2012). Antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of different parts of oriental cherry (Prunus serrulata var spontonea). Food Science and Biotechnology 21(2):339-343. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-012-0045-x
Park K, Koo MH, Ikegaki M, Contado JLM (1997). Comparison of the flavonoid aglycone contents of Apis melifera propolis from various regions of Brazil. Arquivos de Biologia e Tecnologia 40(1):97-106.
Pinacho R, Cavero RY, Astiasarán I, Ansorena D, Calvo MI (2015). Phenolic compounds of blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) and influence of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant capacity. Journal of Functional Foods 19:49-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2015.09.015
Popović BM, Blagojević B, Pavlović RŽ, Mićić N, Bijelić S, Bogdanović B, … Serra AT (2020). Comparison between polyphenol profile and bioactive response in blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) genotypes from north Serbia-from raw data to PCA analysis. Food Chemistry 302:125373. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125373
Radovanović BC, Anđelković SM, Radovanović AB, Anđelković MZ (2013). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of polyphenol extracts from wild berry fruits grown in southeast Serbia. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 12(5):813-819. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v12i5.23
Sahan Y (2011). Effect of Prunus laurocerasus L. (cherry laurel) leaf extracts on growth of bread spoilage fungi. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science 17(1):83-92. https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20113221549
Shi S, Li J, Sun J, Yu J, Zhou S (2013). Phylogeny and classification of Prunus sensu lato (Rosaceae). Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 55(11):1069-1076. https://doi.org/10.1111/jipb.12095
Singleton VJ, Rossi JA (1965). Colometry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 16:144-158. https://www.ajevonline.org/content/16/3/144
Soković M, Glamočlija J, Marin PD, Brkić D, Van Griensven LJ (2010). Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model. Molecules 15(11):7532-7546. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15117532
Tahirovic A, Basic N, Copra-Janicijevic A (2018). Effect of solvents on phenolic compounds extraction and antioxidant activity of Prunus spinosa L. fruits. Glasnik hemicara i tehnologa Bosne i Hercegovine (50):19-24. http://www.pmf.unsa.ba/hemija/glasnik/files/Issue%2050/5-19-24-Tahirovi_A.pdf
Tavares L, Figueira I, Macedo D, McDougall GJ, Leitão MC, Vieira HLA, … Santos CN (2012). Neuroprotective effect of blackberry (Rubus sp.) polyphenols is potentiated after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Food Chemistry 131:1443-1452. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.10.025
Taylor R (1990). Interpretation of the correlation coefficient: a basic review. Journal of Diagnostic Medical Sonography 6(1):35-39. https://doi.org/10.1177/875647939000600106
Varga E, Domokos E, Fogarasi E, Steanesu R, Fülöp I, Croitoru MD, Laszkό-Zöld E (2017). Polyphenolic compounds analysis and antioxidant activity in fruits of Prunus spinosa L. Acta Pharmaceutica Hungarica 87(1):19-25. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29489094/
Veličković I, Žižak Ž, Rajčević N, Ivanov M, Soković M, Marin P, Grujić S (2019). Examination of the polyphenol content and bioactivities of Prunus spinosa L. fruit extracts. Archives of Biological Sciences 72(1):105-115. https://doi.org/10.2298/ABS191217004V
Veličković JM, Kostić DA, Stojanović GS, Mitić SS, Mitić MN, Ranđelović SS, Đorđević AS (2014). Phenolic composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the extracts from Prunus spinosa L. fruit. Hemijska Industrija 68(3):297-303. https://doi.org/10.2298/HEMIND130312054V
Vujanović M, Zengin G, Đurović S, Mašković P, Cvetanović A, Radojković M (2019). Biological activity of extracts of traditional wild medicinal plants from the Balkan Peninsula. South African Journal of Botany 120:213-218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2018.06.012
Wan LS, Min QX, Wang YL, Yue YD, Chen JC (2013). Xanthone glycoside constituents of Swertia kouitchensis with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Journal of Natural Products 76(7):1248-1253. https://doi.org/10.1021/np400082g
Zengin G, Sarikurkcu C, Aktumsek A, Ceylan R, Ceylan O (2014). A comprehensive study on phytochemical characterization of Haplophyllum myrtifolium Boiss. endemic to Turkey and its inhibitory potential against key enzymes involved in Alzheimer, skin diseases and type II diabetes. Industrial Crops and Products 53:244-251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.12.043
Copyright (c) 2021 Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.