Callogenesis optimization of some globe artichoke [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori] cultivars based on in vivo and in vitro leaf explants
Globe artichoke’s [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori] leaves are rich in polyphenols and due to health-promoting properties artichoke growing has been gaining interest. Optimization and development of valuable bioactive components, which are not in the standard amount in raw material can be achieved and increased with the assistance of in vitro techniques such as callus and subsequently cell suspension cultures. Therefore, in the present study in vitro callogenesis optimization of three globe artichoke cultivars was studied by using 29 different media combinations, based on basic Gamborg B5 medium supplemented with various concentrations of 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and Kinetin. Comparisons were made on the basis of using in vivo and in vitro leaves as explant material. In the experiment several parameters such as leaf explants development (%), callus formation (%), and callus weight (g) were assessed for each related cultivar. Results revealed that having auxin: cytokinin concentrations together at enough and well-balanced, having equal amounts or 10:1 concentrations of auxin: cytokinin, concentrations in media combinations are indispensable for stimulating the callogenesis in globe artichoke. The findings of the present study clearly revealed that, there were differences among cultivars regarding callus induction by using in vivo and in vitro leaf explants while in vivo leaf explants came into prominence regarding callus formation and weights. It is assumed that the findings of the present study may play a complementary and auxiliary role in several areas such as pharmaceutical engineering of globe artichoke.
Abbas MS, El-Shabrawi HM, Soliman AS, Selim MA (2018). Optimization of germination, callus induction, and cell suspension culture of African locust beans Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology 16:191-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.10.012
Ananthi P, Ranjitha Kumari BD, Ramachandran A (2011). In vitro propagation of Rorippa indica L. from nodal and shoot tip explants. International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research 2(3):51-55.
Baharan E, Mohammadi PP, Shahbazi E, Hosseini SZ (2015). Effects of some plant growth regulators and light on callus induction and explants browning in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in vitro leaves culture. Iranian Journal of Plant Physiology 5(4):1473-1481.
Borpuzari PP, Kachari J (2018). Effect of glutamine for high frequency in vitro regeneration of Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. through nodal culture. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 6(2):9-16.
Cimino C, Cavalli SV, Spina F, Natalucci C, Priolo N (2006). Callus culture for biomass production of milk thistle as a potential source of milk clotting peptidases. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 9(3):Special Issue. https://doi.org/10.2225/vol9-issue3-fulltext-14
Efferth T (2019). Biotechnology applications of plant callus cultures. Engineering 5:50-59 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2018.11.006
Elaleem KGA, Modawi RS, Khalafalla MM (2009). Effect of plant growth regulators on callus induction and plant regeneration in tuber segment culture of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivar Diamant. African Journal of Biotechnology 8(11):2529-2534.
Espinosa‑Leal CA, Puente‑Garza CA, Garcia‑Lara S (2018). In vitro plant tissue culture: means for production of biological active compounds. Planta 248:1-18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00425-018-2910-1
Farhan MM, Hassawi DS, Ibraheem NK (2018). Polyphenols compounds ınvestigation of leaves and callus artichokes (Cynara scolymus L.). Plant Archives 18(2):2629-2635.
Fiegert AK, Mix WG, Vorlop KD (2000). Regeneration of Solanum tuberosum L. Tomensa cv, Induction of somatic embryogenesis in liquid culture for the production of artificial seed. Landbauforschung Volkenrode 50(3):199-202.
Figueiredo AC, Fevereiro P, Cabral JMS, Novais JM, Pais MSS (1987). Callus and suspension culture for biomass production of Cynara cardunculus (Compositae). Biotechnology Letters 9(3):213-218. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01024569
Gamborg OL, Miller RA, Ojima K (1968). Nutrient requirement of suspensions cultures of soybean root cells. Experimental Cell Research 50(1):151-158.
Hamasaki RM, Purgatto E, Mercier H (2005). Glutamine enhances competence for organogenesis in pineapple leaves cultivated in vitro. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology 17(4):383-389. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1677-04202005000400006
Hesami M, Daneshvar MH (2018). Indirect organogenesis through seedling-derived leaf segments of Ficus religiosa - a multipurpose woody medicinal plant. Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology 21(2):129-136. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12892-018-0024-0
Jacob A, Malpathak N (2005). Manipulation of MS and B5 components for enhancement of growth and solasodine production in hairy root cultures of Solanum khasianum Clarke. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 80:247–257. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11240-004-0740-2
Ji X-H, Wang Y-T, Zhang R, Wu S-J, An M-M, Li M, … Chen X-S (2015). Effect of auxin, cytokinin and nitrogen on anthocyanin biosynthesis in callus cultures of red-fleshed apple (Malus sieversii f.niedzwetzkyana). Plant Cell, Tissue Organ Culture 120(1):325-337.
Joshaghani MS, Ghasemnezhad A, Alizadeh M (2014). Effect of explants types, culture media and concentrations of plant growth regulator on callus induction rate in Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). International Journal of Biotechnology Research 2(6):70-74.
Lestari NKD, Deswiniyanti NW, Astarini IA, Arpiwi LM (2019). Callus and shoot induction of leaf culture Lilium longiflorum with NAA and BAP. Nusantara Bioscience 11(2):162-165. https://doi.org/10.13057/nusbiosci/n110209
Mazri MA, Meziani R, El Fadile J, Ezzinbi A (2016). Optimization of medium composition for in vitro shoot proliferation and growth of date palm cv. Mejhoul. 3 Biotech 6:111. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-016-0430-x
Meratan AA, Ghaffari SM, Niknam V (2009). In vitro organogenesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in Acanthophyllum sordidum. Biologia Plantarum 53(1):5-10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10535-009-0002-6
Mizukami H, Tomita K, Ohashi H, Hiraoka N (1988). Anthocyanin production in callus cultures of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Plant Cell Reports 7(7):553-556. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00272755
Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiologia Plantarum 15:473-497. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1962.tb08052.x
Newsholme P, Lima MMR, Procopio J, Pithon-Curi TC, Doi SQ, Bazotte RB, Curi R (2003). Glutamine and glutamate as vital metabolites. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 36:153-163. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0100-879x2003000200002
Ogita S, Sasamoto H, Yeung EC, Thorpe TA (2001). The effects of glutamine on the maintenance of embryogenic cultures of Cryptomeria japonica. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant 37:268-273. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11627-001-0048-4
Olsen FL (1987). Induction of microspore embryogenesis in cultured anthers of Hordeum vulgare. The effects of ammonium nitrate, glutamine and asparagine as nitrogen sources. Carlsberg Research Communications 52:393-404.
Ozsan T, Onus AN (2018). Does glutamine promote the development of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) anthers in vitro? Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research 5(11):228-236.
Pandino G, Lombardo S, Mauro RP, Mauromicale G (2012). Variation in polyphenol profile and head morphology among clones of globe artichoke selected from a landrace. Scientia Horticulturae 138:259-265.
Rueb S, Leneman M, Schilperoort RA, Hensgens LAM (1994). Efficient plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis from callus induced on mature rice embryos (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 36(2):259-264. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00037729
Ruta C, Tagarelli A, Campanelli A, De Mastro G, Morone-Fortunato I (2013). Callogenesis capability of artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L. Fiori). In: Pagnotta MA (Ed.). Proceedings 8th IS on Artichoke, Cardoon and Their Wild Relatives 2013. Italy: Acta Horticulturae 983 ISHS, pp 377-380. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2013.983.54.
Sa G, Mi M, He-chun Y, Ben-ye L, Guo-feng L, Kang C (2001). Effects of ipt gene expression on the physiological and chemical characteristics of Artemisia annua L. Plant Science 160(4):691-698.
Sarmadi M, Karimi N, Palazón J, Ghassempour A, Mirjalili MH (2018). The effects of salicylic acid and glucose on biochemical traits and taxane production in a Taxus baccata callus culture. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 132:271-280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.09.013
Shahsavari E, Maheran AA, Siti Nor Akmar A, Hanafi MM (2010). The effect of plant growth regulators on optimization of tissue culture system in Malaysian upland rice. African Journal of Biotechnology 9(14):2089-2094.
Siatka T (2019). Effects of growth regulators on production of anthocyanins in callus cultures of Angelica archangelica. Natural Product Communications 2019:1-4. https://doi.org/10.1177/1934578X19857344.
Tariq U, Ali M, Abbasi BH (2014). Morphogenic and biochemical variations under different spectral lights in callus cultures of Artemisia absinthium L. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 130:264-271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2013.11.026
Vasudevan A, Selvaraj N, Ganapathi A, Kasthurirengan S, Ramesh Anbazhagan V, Manickavasagam M (2004). Glutamine: a suitable nitrogen source for enhanced shoot multiplication in Cucumis sativus L. Biologia Plantarum 48:125-128.
Wani S, Kaloo Z, Shah M, Banday S (2018). Influence of explant and plant growth regulators on callus mediated regeneration in Lavatera cashmeriana, Cambess. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 7(3):326-336. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12298-012-0146-2
Willims RR (1995). The chemical microenvironment. In: Aitken-Christie J, Kozai T, Lila Smith MA (Eds). Automation and Environmental Control in Plant Tissue Culture. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht pp 405-439.
Yasmin S, Nasiruddin KM, Begum R, Talukder SK (2003). Regeneration and establishment of potato plantlets through callus formation with BAP and NAA. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 2(12):936-940. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajps.2003.936.940
Copyright (c) 2020 Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.