Effects of combined pretreatments on germination and emergence of wild Eremurus spectabilis M.Bieb. seeds
Keywords:CaCl2; KNO3; Liliaceae; moist-cold stratification; seed dormancy
Eremurus spectabilis is a perennial herbaceous species that grows in the wild. Commonly consumed as a vegetable, it is also classified among medicinal plants and popular ornamental geophytes. Germination is not achieved under normal conditions because of seed dormancy. In this study, various combined treatments were experimented with to improve the germination and emergence performance of E. spectabilis seeds. The seeds were immersed in solutions of potassium nitrate (KNO3: 5 mM for 24 and 48 hours), calcium chloride (CaCl2: 5 mM for 24 and 48 hours) and subjected to tip cutting. Pre-treated seeds were then subjected to moist-cold stratification periods treatments for different durations (30, 50, 80 and 100 days). In the 5 mM KNO3 treatments, 48-hour KNO3 and 100 days of stratification treatments had better germination (11.1%) and emergence values (9.7%). In the 5 mM CaCl2 treatments, 24-hour CaCl2 yielded better germination (10.2%) and emergence (8.4%) values. Seed tip-cutting treatments were the most successful among all the treatments for the germination and emergence parameters.
Abdul Baki AA, Anderson JD (1973). Vigor determination in soybean by multiple criteria. Crop Science 13(6):630-633. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1973.0011183X001300060013x
Baskin CC, Baskin JM (1998). Seeds: Ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. Academic Press, San Diego.
Baskin JM, Baskin CC, Li X (2000). Taxonomy, anatomy and evolution of physical dormancy in seeds. Plant Species Biology 15(2):139-152. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1442-1984.2000.00034.x
Baskin CC, Baskin JM (2004). Germinating seeds of wildflowers, an ecological perspective. Horttechnology 14(4):467-473. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH.14.4.0467
Cho JS, Jang BK, Lee CH (2018). Seed dormancy and germination characteristics of the endangered species Cicuta virosa L. in South Korea. Horticulture Environment and Biotechnology 59(4):473-481. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13580-018-0062-7
Cho JS, Lee CH (2018). Effect of germination and water absorption on scarification and stratification of kousa dogwood seed. Horticulture Environment and Biotechnology 59(3):335-344. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13580-018-0034-y
Farzami Sepehr M, Ghorbanli M (2011). Breaking of dormancy in Rhubarb (Rheum ribes L.). Iranian Journal of Plant Physiology 1(2):118-124.
Güngör F (2002). Investigation on the morphological, biological characteristics and cultivation possibilities of Eremurus spectabilis (Bieb.) Fedtsch, Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. and Hippomarathrum microcarpum (Bieb.) as growing wildly. PhD Dissertation, University of Atatürk (in Turkish).
Keskiner K (2017). Investigations on applications of breaking seed dormancy in grown wild Eremurus spectabilis M.Bieb. MSc Dissertation, University of Van Yüzüncü Yıl (in Turkish).
Keskiner K, Tuncer B (2019). Dormancy breaking treatments for wild Eremurus spectabilis M. Bieb seeds. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 28(2A):1167-1173.
Kırmızı S, Güleryüz G, Arslan H (2018). Effects of pretreatments on seed dormancy and germination in endemic Uludağ flax (Linum olympicum Boiss.) (Linaceae). Horticulture Environment and Biotechnology 59(5):629-635. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13580-018-0075-2
Li X, Baskin JM, Baskin CC (1999). Anatomy of two mechanisms of breaking physical dormancy by experimental treatments in seeds of two North American Rhus species (Anacardiaceae). American Journal of Botany 86(11):1505-1511. https://doi.org/10.2307/2656788
Mamut J, Tan DY, Baskin CC, Baskin JM (2014). Intermediate complex morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of the cold desert sand dune geophyte Eremurus anisopterus (Xanthorrhoeaceae; Liliaceae s.l.). Annals of Botany 114(5):991-999. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcu164
Murillo-Amador B, López-Aguilar R, Kaya C, Larrinaga Mayoral J, Flores-Hernández A (2002). Comparative effects of NaCl and polyethylene glycol on germination, emergence and seedling growth of cowpea. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 188:235-247. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-037X.2002.00563.x
Nikolaeva MG (1969). Physiology of deep dormancy in seeds (trans: by Z. Shapiro). Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd, Jerusalem.
Pourfarzad A, Najafi MBH, Khodaparast MHH, Khayyat MH, Malekpour A (2014). Fractionation of (Eremurus spectabilis) fructans by ethanol: Box–Behnken design and principal component analysis. Carbohydrate Polymers 106:374-383. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.01.048
Rahmanpour A, Majd A, Chalabian F (2005). Effects of gibberellic and citric acıd on germination percentage, speed of germination and seed vigor of (Eremurus spectabilis M.B). Iranian Journal of Rangelands and Forests Plant Breeding and Genetic Research 131(19):53-65.
Rahmanpour A, Majd A, Chalabian F (2007). The effect of hormones and mechanical treatments on seed germination of Eremurus olgae Regel. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 23:1(35):111-120.
Rouhi HR, Shakarami K, Afshari RT (2010). Seed treatments to overcome dormancy of waterlily tulip (Tulipa kaufmanniana Regel.). Australian Journal of Crop Science 4(9):718-721.
Schiappacasse F, Szigeti JC, Manzano E, Kamenetsky R (2013). Eremurus as a new cut flower crop in Aysen, Chile: introduction from the Northern hemisphere. Acta Horticulturae 1002:115-121.
Tosun M, Ercisli S, Ozer H, Turan M, Polat T, Ozturk E, Padem H, Kılıcgun H (2012). Chemical compositıon and antioxidant activity of foxtail lily (Eremurus spectabilis). Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus 11(3):145-153.
Tuzlacı E (1985). Çiriş plants of Turkey. Marmara Pharmaceutical Journal 1:69-89.
Tuzlacı E, Doğan A (2010). Turkish folk medicinal plants, IX: Ovacık (Tunceli). Marmara Pharmaceutical Journal 14:136-143.
How to Cite
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.