Molecular characterization of mulberry genotypes and species in Turkey
Keywords:landraces; molecular characterization; mulberry species; seed propagation; SSR
Mulberries are one of the most important traditional fruit in Turkey and either consumed fresh or processed into several traditional products. Mulberry trees (genotypes) belong to Morus alba L., Morus nigra L., and Morus rubra L. shows high phenotypic diversity. In this study, 26 genotypes of Morus nigra, 21 genotypes of Morus rubra and 26 genotypes and landraces of Morus alba sampled from different parts of eastern Anatolia region in Turkey were fingerprinted using 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Among SSR markers, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 (SS01, SS05) to 11 (MulSTR3) with an average of 5.19. A total of 83 alleles were obtained for the 16 SSR markers. The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.43 to 0.84 with an average of 0.61 per locus. In this study, MulSTR3, MulSTR5, MulSTR6, SS04 and SS20 were found to be the most useful SSR markers to detect genetic differences between mulberry species, genotypes and landraces. Genetic similarity ratio ranged from 0.24 to 0.94 with a mean similarity value of 0.41 indicating a high level of polymorphism among the mulberry species, genotypes and landraces. Clustering based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient and an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) revealed 3 main clusters that corresponded with species. The results of the present study indicate that white mulberry landraces and genotypes were more diverse than the red and black mulberry genotypes. Therefore, white mulberry genotypes can be a good source for the mulberry-breeding programme due to its better genetic diversity as well as its high economical and yield properties.
Andersen JR, Lubberstedt T (2003). Functional markers in plants. Trends in Plant Science 8(11):554-560.
Aggarwal RK, Udayakumar D, Hendre PS, Sarkar A, Singh LI (2004). Isolation and Characterization of six novel microsatelite markers for mulberry (Morus indica). Molecular Ecology 4:477-479.
Arabshahi-Delouee S, Urooj A (2007). Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves. Food Chemistry 102(4):1233-1240.
Aslan, MM (1998). Selection of promising mulberry type in Malatya, Elazığ, Erzincan and Tunceli. Çukurova University. Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Horticulture, M.Sc. Adana pp 67.
Bowcock AM, Ruiz-Linares A, Tomfohrde J, Minch E, Kidd JR, Cavalli-Sforza LL (1994). High resolution of human evolutionary trees with polymorphic microsatellites. Nature 368:455-457.
Cam I, Turkoglu N (2004). Studies on some phenological and pomological traits of mulberries grown in Edremit and Gevaş region. Journal of Agricultural Science 14(2):127-131.
Camacho-Villa TC, Maxted N, Scholten M, Ford-Lloyd B (2005). Defining and identifying crop landraces. Plant Genet Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation 3:373-384.
Darias-Martin J, Lobo-Rodrigo G, Hernandez-Cordero J, Diaz-Diaz E, Diaz-Romero C (2003). Alcoholic beverages obtained from black mulberry. Food Technology and Biotechnology 41(2):173-176.
Dwivedi SL, Ceccarelli S, Blair MW, Upadhyaya HD, Are AK, Ortiz R (2016). Landrace germplasm for improving yield and abiotic stress adaptation. Trends in Plant Science 21(1):31-42.
Ercisli S, Orhan E (2007). Chemical composition of white (Morus alba), red (Morus rubra) and black (M. nigra) mulberry fruits. Food Chemistry 103(4):1380-1384.
Ercisli S, Orhan E (2008). Some physico-chemical characteristics of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) genotypes from Northeast Anatolia Region of Turkey. Scientia Horticulturae 116:41-46.
Ercisli S, Ipek A, Barut E (2011). SSR marker-based DNA fingerprinting and cultivar identification of olives (Olea europaea). Biochemical Genetics 49(9-10):555-561.
Eyduran SP, Ercisli S, Akin M, Eyduran E (2016). Genetic characterization of autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Turkey by simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment 30:26-31.
Garcia-Gomez B, Gonzalez-Alvarez H, Martinez-Mora C, Cenis JL, Perez-Hernandez MDC, Martinez-Zubiaur Y, Martinez-Gomez P (2019). The molecular characterization of an extended mulberry germplasm by SSR markers. Genetika 51(2):389-403.
Guney M, Kafkas S, Keles H, Aras S, Ercisli S (2018). Characterization of hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) genotypes by SSR markers. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants 24(6):1221-1230.
Gungor N, Sengul M (2008). Antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and selected physicochemical properties of white mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruits. International Journal of Food Properties 11:44-52.
Kafkas S, Ozgen M, Dogan Y, Ozcan B, Ercisli S, Serce S (2008). Molecular characterization of mulberry accessions in Turkey by AFLP markers. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 133:593-597.
Kalinowski ST, Taper ML, Marshall TC (2007). Revising how the computer program CERVUS accommodates genotyping error increases success in paternity assignment. Molecular Ecology 16 (5):1099-1106.2
Minch E, Ruiz-Linares A, Goldstein DB, Feldman M, Cavalli-Sforza LL (1995). Microsat (Version 1.4d): a computer program for calculating various statistics on microsatellite allele data. Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford.
Orhan E, Ercisli S, Yildirim N, Agar G (2007). Genetic variations among mulberry genotypes (Morus alba) as revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Plant Systematics and Evolution 265:251-258.
Orhan E (2009). Selection of mulberry types grown in Oltu and Olur district and determine genetic relationships among types by using RAPD methods. PhD, Atatürk University, Erzurum, Turkey.
Paetkau D, Calvert W, Stirling I, Strobeck C (1995). Microsatellite analysis of population structure in Canadian polar bears. Molecular Ecology 4:347-354.
Ramesh K, Aggarwal D, Udaykumar D, Hendre PS, Sarkar A, Singh LI (2004). Isolation and characterization of six novel microsatellite markers for mulberry (Morus indica). Molecular Ecology Notes 4:477-479.
Rohlf FJ (1988) NTSYS-PC Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System. Exeter Publishing, New York.
Sneath PH, Sokal RR (1973) Numerical Taxonomy. Freeman, San Francisco.
Thangavelu K, Mukherjee P, Tikader A, Ravindran S, Goel AK, Rao AA, … Sekar S (1997). Catalogue on mulberry (Morus spp.) germplasm. Central Sericultural Germplasm Resource Centre, Hosur, Tamil Nadu, India.
Vijayan K, Chatterjee SN, Nair CV (2005). Molecular characterization of mulberry genetic resources indigenous to India. Genetic Resource and Crop Evolution 52:77-86.
Vijayan K, Chakraborti SP, Ercisli S, Ghosh PD (2008). NaCI induced morpho-biochemical and anatomical changes in mulberry (Morus spp.). Plant Growth Regulation 56(1):61-69.
Wagner HW, Sefc KM (1999). Identity 1.0. Centre for Applied Genetics. University of Agricultural Science, Vienna.
Wangari NP, Gacheri KM, Theophilus MM, Lucas N (2013). Use of SSR markers for genetic diversity studies in mulberry accessions grown in Kenya. International Journal for Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research 4(3):38-44.
Wani SA, Bhat MA, Malik GN, Zaki FA, Mir MR, Wani N, Bhat KM (2013). Genetic diversity and relationship assessment among mulberry (Morus spp) genotypes by simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker profile. African Journal of Biotechnology 12(21):3181-3187.
Yuan Q, Zhao L (2017). The Mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit: A review of characteristic components and health benefits: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 65:10383-10394.
Zhang H, Ma ZF, Luo X, Li X (2018). Effects of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) consumption on health outcomes: A mini-review. Antioxidants 7(5):69.
Zhao W, Miao X, Jia S, Pan Y, Huang Y (2005). Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the mulberry, Morus L. Plant Science 16:519-525.
Zhao W, Wang Y, Chen T, Ra G, Wang XM, Qi JL, … Yang YH (2007). Genetic structure of mulberry from different ecotypes revealed by ISSRs in China: An implication for conservation of local mulberry varieties. Scientia Horticulturae 115:47-55.
How to Cite
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.