Genetic diversity of Polish cultivars of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) based on molecular and protein markers
Knowledge of the composition subunits of proteins glutenins makes it much easier to determine the quality and suitability of the final product obtained from gluten. It is important to remember that not only molecular processes model gluten protein polymorphism. In this study, the genetic diversity of Polish common wheat cultivars was examined at the level of DNA and glutenin’s proteins HMW-GS. The SDS-PAGE and RAPD bands were evaluated in binary matrix, which was the basis for further analysis of results, using appropriate measures of variability: Q-Cochran test (Cochran, 1950), p < 0.05; I-Shannon index; Si-Similarity index; PIC-Polymorphism Information Content; (PCA-Principal component analysis). Both types of markers proved to be useful in the overall assessment of genetic variability between tested of common wheat cultivars. The general genetic diversity indicates that good candidates with unique composition of HMW-GS subunits were selected among the examined cultivars and three OPA-02, OPA-03, OPB-08 primers with the highest power differentiating for the studied genotypes were selected. Results of the research revealed the potentials of RAPD and SDS-PAGE technique in determining genetical diversity and make a suitable qualitative assessment of common wheat cultivars.
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