In vitro embryo rescue for the production of hypotetraploids after cross between hypotetraploid and tetraploid grape cultivars
Keywords:aneuploidy; ovule; seedless grape; tissue culture
Consumer demand for seedless grape with high quality and large berry has been increasing. Breeding of hypotetraploid grape was suggested as one of promising methods to satisfy it, but low frequency of hypotetraploid occurrence and low seed germination by abortive embryo were indicated as the major problem to hamper the development of hypotetraploid grape. Hence, this study was carried out to evaluate the basic efficiency of in ovulo embryo culture after the cross between hypotetraploid (‘Hanareum’) and tetraploid (‘Honey Black’ and ‘Kyoho’) grape cultivars on the establishment of hypotetraploid grapes. Embryos and plantlets were hardly obtained in ovules cultured at six after the cross pollination (WAP), but ovules inoculated at 10 WAP produced more embryos as well as plantlets regardless of cross combination. Furthermore, we found that embryo formation was not affected by the basal media in ovules cultured at six WAP, but utilization of specific medium can be more beneficial for embryo formation when ovules were cultured at 10 WAP. A total of 17 plants were obtained from ovules cultured at 10 WAP, and above 50% of plants were identified as hypotetraploid grapes. These results indicate that in vitro embryo rescue after cross pollination between hypotetraploid and tetraploid grape can enhance the efficiency for the breeding of hypotetraploid grapes.
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