Agronomic characteristics of Serapias vomeracea (Burm. f.) Briq. salep orchids
Keywords:canonical correlation; modeling; morphology; multivariate; yield
Although salep orchids are annual plants, each new generation emerges larger than their parents. There are no data on the developmental performance of these species that cannot be cultivated due to production difficulties. This study discusses Salep vomeracea (Burm. f.) Briq., one of the most common species in temperate climate regions. Tubers obtained from natural flora were divided into seven groups according to their size. Morphological characteristics of the seedlings developed from these tubers were determined and observed up to the harvest stage. The study was carried out in a randomized plot design with three replications and for two years. As a result of statistical analysis, all parameters were found to be significant. The canonical correlation between the first pair of canonical variables was 0.995 (p<0.01). The data obtained from the length of the planted tuber made the biggest contribution to the explanatory power of the canonical variables. Additionally, the mathematical relationship between width, height and area values of salep leaves was determined.
Acemi A, Cobanoglu O, Turker-Kaya S (2019). FTIR-based comparative analysis of glucomannan contents in some tuberous orchids, and effects of pre-processing on glucomannan measurement. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture 99(7):3681-3686. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9596
Acemi A, Ozen F (2019). Optimization of in vitro asymbiotic seed germination protocol for Serapias vomeracea. The EuroBiotech Journal 3(3):143-151. https://doi.org/10.2478/ebtj-2019-0017
Akbas Y, Takma C (2005). Canonical correlation analysis for studying the relationship between egg production traits and body weight, egg weight and age at sexual maturity in layers. Czech Journal of Animal Science 50(4):163-168. https://doi.org/10.17221/4010-CJAS
Albayrak AS (2006). Applied Multivariate Statistical Techniques. Asil Publications, Ankara.
Arabaci O, Tutar M, Ogretmen NG, Yasar F, Tan U (2014). Effects of different cultural practices in salep orchids. In: Turkey II. Medicinal and aromatic plants symposium proceeding books, 23-25 September, Yalova, pp 479-487.
Attri LA (2016). Terapeutic potential of orchids. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science 5(2):438-446.
Bektas E, Cuce M, Sokmen A (2013). In vitro germination, protocorm formation, and plantlet development of Orchis coriophora (Orchidaceae), a naturally growing orchid species in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Botany 37(2):336-342. https://doi.org/10.3906/bot-1205-28
Belusci F, Pellegrino G, Palermo AM, Musacchio A (2008). Phylogenetic relationships in the orchid genus Serapias L. based on noncodingregions of the chloroplast genome. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47(3):986-991. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2008.03.019
Bilgin OC, Emsen E, Davis ME (2003). An application of canonical correlation analysis to relationships between the head and scrotum measurements in awassi fat tailed Lambs. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 2:343-349. http://medwelljournals.com/abstract/?doi=javaa.2003.343.349
Brullo C, Emerico SD, Pulvirenti S (2014). A cytological study of four Sicilian Serapias (Orchidaceae). Caryologia 67(3):260-264. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144235X.2014.974354
Bulpitt CJ (2005). The uses and misuses of orchids in medicine. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine 98(9): 625-631. https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hci094
Caliskan O, Kurt D (2019a). Salep orchids from past to present with historical recordings. Turkish Journal of Agricultural Research 6(3):349-355. https://doi.org/10.19159/tutad.543576
Caliskan O, Kurt D (2019b). Description of development period of Dactylorhiza romana (Sebast.) Soo. during four consecutive years. Anadolu Journal of Agricultural Science 34(2):195-200. https://doi.org/10.7161/omuanajas.491130
Caliskan O, Kurt D, Cirak C (2019). Development of new sustainable sahlep production methods using Ophrys sphegodes subsp. mammosa (Desf.) Soo ex E. Nelson. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 21(6):1547-1555. http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-23-19310-en.html
Cankaya S, Altop A, Olfaz M, Erener G (2009). Canonical correlation analysis for estimation for relationships between some traits measured at pre- and post- slaughtering periods in Karayaka hoggets. Anadolu Journal of Agricultural Science 24(1):61-66. https://doi.org/10.7161/anajas.2009.24.1.61-66
Centritto M, Loreto F, Massacci A, Pietrini F, Villani MC, Zacchine M (2000). Improved growth and water use efficiency of cherry saplings under reduced light intensity. Ecological Research 15(4):385-392. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1703.2000.00359.x
Cig A, Durak ED, Isler S (2018). In vitro symbiotic germination potentials of some Anacamptis, Dactylorhiza, Orchis and Ophrys terrestrial orchid species. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 16(4):5141-5155. https://doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1604_51415155
Delforge P (2006). Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. Timber Press, Portland.
Ekanade O, Orimoogunje OOI (2012). Application of canonical correlation for soil-vegetation interrelationship in the cocoa belt of South Western Nigeria. Resources and Environment 2(3):87-92. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.re.20120203.02
Ertas S, Ozel A, Erden K (2019). Determination of the botanical properties and glucomannan contents of some salep species cultivated in Şanlıurfa conditions. Harran Journal of Agriculture and Food Science 23(1):39-46. https://doi.org/10.29050/harranziraat.406221
Faraji Z, Nikzad H, Parivar K, Nikzad M (2013). The effect of aqueous extract of salep tubers on the structure of testis and sexual hormones in male mice. Journal of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences 11(1):61-66. https://doi.org/10.29252/jmj.11.1.10
Gorbani A, Gravendeel B, Zarre S, Boer H (2014). Illegal wild collection and international trade of CITES listed terrestrial orchid tubers in Iran. Traffic Bulletin 26(2):53-58.
Guler N (2005). Morphological and chorological studies on the orchids growing in Kazdağları. PhD Dissertation, Trakya University, Graduate School of Sciences, Tekirdag.
Gunderson BK, Muirhead RJ (1997). On estimating the dimensionality in canonical correlation analysis. Journal of Multivariate Analysis 62(1):121-136. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmva.1997.1677
Heenkenda S, Chandrakumara DPS (2015). A canonical analysis on the relationship between financial risk tolerance and household education investment in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Innovation and Economic Development 1(4):7-23.
Hossain MM (2011). Therapeutic orchids: traditional uses and recent advances-an overview. Fitoterapia 82:102-140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2010.09.007
Jagdale SP, Shimpi S, Chachad D (2009). Pharmacological studies of ‘Salep’. Journal of Herbal Medicine and Toxicology 3(1):153-156.
Jalal JS, Kumar P, Pangtey YPS (2008). Ethnomedicinal orchids of Uttarakhand, Western Himalaya. Ethnobotanicl Leaflets 12(1):1227-1230.
Johnson RA, Wicherm DW (2002). Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis (5th ed.) Prentice Hill, New Jersey.
Kasparek M, Grimm U (1999). European trade in Turkish salep with special reference to Germany. Economic Botany 53(4):396-406.
Keskin S, Kor A, Baspinar E (2005). The investigation of relationships between some traits measured pre-slaughtering and post-slaughtering by using of canonical correlation analysis in Akkeçi Kids. Tarim Bilim Derg 11(2):154-159.
Kreutz CAJ (2002). The orchids of Turkey; Sahlep, Ice cream and Massacre. Green Atlas 5:98-109.
Kreutz CAJ (2009). The orchids of Turkey: botanical features, ecological requests, natural distribution areas, life threats, protection measures. Edt Alper Hüseyin Çolak, Rota Publications, Istanbul.
Molnar AV, Nagy T, Loki V, Suveges K, Takacs A, … Tokolyi J (2017). Turkish graveyards as refuges for orchids against tuber harvest. Ecology and Evolution 7(24): 11257-11264. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3562
Odabas MS, Camas N, Cirak C, Radusiene J, Valdamiras J, Ivanauskas L (2010). The quantitative effects of temperature and light intensity on phenolics accumulation in St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). Natural Product Communications 5(4):535-540. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1934578X1000500408
Odabas MS, Leelaruban N, Simsek H, Padmanabhan G (2014). Quantifying impact of droughts on barley yield in North Dakota, USA using multiple linear regression and artificial neural network. Neural Network World 24(4):343-355.
Oner F, Odabas MS, Sezer I, Odabas F (2011). Leaf area prediction for corn (Zea mays L.) cultivars with multiregression analysis. Photosynthetica 49(4):637-640. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11099-011-0069-0
Ong JWL (2016). In Bed with Viruses: The Partnership Between Orchids, Fungi and Viruses. For the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Murdoch University, Murdoch.
Ozcomak MS, Gunduz M, Demirci A, Yakut E (2012). Investigation of relationship between various climate and product data by canonical correlation analysis and data envelopment analysis methods. Journal of Economics and Administrative Sciences 26(1):111-131. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/atauniiibd/issue/2704/35696
Pant B (2013). Medicinal orchids and their uses: Tissue culture a potential alternative for conservation. African Journal of Plant Sciences 7(10):448-467. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJPS2013.1031
Pellegrino G, Masucchio A, Noce ME, Palermo AM, Widmer A (2005). Reproductive versus floral isolation among morphologically similar Serapias L. Species (Orchidaceae). Journal of Heredity 96(1):15-23. https://doi.org/10.1093/jhered/esi006
Ponert J, Vosolsebe S, Kmecova K, Lipavska H (2011). European orchid cultivation-from seed to mature plant. European Journal of Environmental Sciences 1(2):95-107. https://doi.org/10.14712/23361964.2015.52
Renz J, Taubenheim G (1984). Orchidaceae. In: Davis PH (Ed). The Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, Vol. 8. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
Saglam M (2013). The estimation with canonical correlation analysis of relationships between physical and chemical properties in entisol and inceptisol soils. Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi-Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi 8(2):66-79. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/sduzfd/issue/29593/317502
Sandal G (2009). Eastern Mediterranean region and grows orchids with the threat of habitat characteristics to investigate factors. PhD Dissertation, Cukurova University, Graduate School of Sciences, Adana.
Sevgi E, Altundag E, Kara O, Sevgi O, Tecimen HB, Bolat I (2012). Relations between morphological characteristics and community structure of Serapias bergonii E.G. Camus species in Çanakkale-Biga. In: Turkey II. Orchid and Salep Workshop Proceedings Book, 157-171, Aegean Agricultural Research Institue, No: 153, Meta Publications, Izmir.
Sherry A, Henson RK (2005). Conducting and interpreting canonical correlations analysis in personality research: a user-friendly primer. Journal of Personality Assessment 84(1):37-48. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa8401_09
Soganci K (2017). Determination of canonic correlation among characteristics of local dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes collected from Middle Kızılırmak Valley. Master’s Thesis. Ahi Evran University, Institute of Science. Kirsehir.
Swarts ND, Dixon KW (2009). Terrestrial orchid conservation in the age of extinction. Annals of Botany 104(3):543-556. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcp025
Tatiya A, Kalaskar M, Patil Y, Surana S (2018). Chemical analysis, nutritional content and antioxidant property of Eulophia herbacea Lindl. tubers: a medicinally versatile Indian tribal nutritional food supplement. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 17(1):141-147.
Temurtas A (2016). Canonical correlation analysis. In: Multivariate statistics for all. Guzeller CO (Ed). Maya Academy Publication, Ankara, pp 101-112.
Turgay O, Cinar I (2017). Salep: the name of the plant, powder, hot beverage, food ingredient. KSU Journal of Engineering Sciences 20(3):68-71. https://doi.org/10.17780/ksujes.341382
Tutar M, Sari AO, Cicek F, Yildiz O (2012). Main orchids collected for salep from Aegean region. In: Turkey II. Orchid and Salep Workshop Proceedings Book, Aegean Agricultural Research Institue, No: 153, Meta Publications, Izmir, pp 145-156.
Utami ESW, Hariyanto S, Manuhara YSW (2017). In vitro propagation of the endangered medicinal orchid, Dendrobium lasianthera J.J.Sm through mature seed culture. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 7(5):406-410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.011
Uzun S (1996). The quantitative effects of temperature and light environment on the growth, development and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and aubergine (Solanum melongena L.). Master Thesis, The University of Reading, Reading, UK.
Vainionpaa J, Kervinen R, Prado M, Laurila E, Kari M, Mustonen L, Ahvenainen R (2000). Exploration of storage and process tolerance of different potato cultivars using principal component and canonical correlation analyses. Journal of Food Engineering 44(1):47-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0260-8774(99)00164-8
Venhuis C, Venhuis P, Oostermeijer JGB, van Tienderen PH (2007). Morphological systematics of Serapias L. (Orchidaceae) in southwest Europe. Plant Systematics and Evolution 265(3-4):165-177. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-007-0519-0
Warghat AR, Bajpai PK, Srivastava RB, Chaurasia OP, Chauhan RS, Sood H (2014). In vitro protocorm development and mass multiplication of an endangered orchid, Dactylorhiza hatagire. Turkish Journal of Botany 38:737-746. https://doi.org/10.3906/bot-1308-48
Xian-Li X, Ke-Ming M, Bo-Jie F, Cheng-Jun S, Wen L (2008). Relationships between vegetation and topography in a dry warm river valley SW Chin. Catena 75:138-145.
Yaman K (2013). Regulations relating to the salep and its trade in Turkish official gazette archives from 1920 to the present. Journal of History Culture and Art Research 2(1):172-180.
Yerkin D, Temizel KE (2018). The effects of sodic water applications at different levels on the leaf area and leaf area estimation of bean plants. Black Sea Journal of Agriculture 1(3):70-75.
How to Cite
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.