Growth Analysis of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) in Response to Fertilization and Soil Tillage
Keywords:GDDs; growth analysis; indices; quinoa
Growth analysis is an appropriate method for plant response to various environmental and cultural conditions during plant life. A 2-year experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of soil tillage and fertilization on the growth and growth parameters of quinoa crop and to determine the association between yield and growth characteristics at both the single plant and crop stand level. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with two replicates, two main plots [conventional (CT) and minimum tillage (MT)] and four sub-plots [fertilization treatments: untreated, inorganic fertilization of 100 (N1) and 200 kg N ha-1 (N2) and sheep manure]. The highest absolute growth rate (AGR) and crop growth rate (CGR) values were recorded between the middle of vegetative growth stage and the beginning of anthesis (50-75 DAS) under conventional tillage coupled with manure (AGR: 0.4577 g day-1, CGR: 11.44 g m-2 day-1) and with N2 treatment (AGR: 0.4521 g day-1, CGR: 11.31 g m-2 day-1). Concerning specific leaf area (SLA), the highest value (150.58 cm2 g-1) was found at 75 DAS in N2 treatment. Leaf area index (LAI) were positively affected by soil tillage and fertilization with greatest values found under conventional tillage coupled with N2 treatment (5.110 m2 m-2). The highest seed yield was observed in N2 treatment (2488 and 2388 kg ha-1 under CT and MT, respectively). As a conclusion, the cultivation under conventional tillage and the increasing levels of applied nitrogen up to 200 kg N ha-1 increases crop growth and yield.
Bilalis, D, Kakabouki I, Karkanis A, Travlos I, Triantafyllidis V, Hela D (2012). Seed and saponin production of organic quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) for different tillage and fertilization. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 40(1):42-46.
Bilalis D, Roussis I, Fuentes F, Kakabouki I, Travlos I (2017). Organic agriculture and innovative crops under Mediterranean conditions. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 45(2): 323-331.
Bilalis DJ, Roussis I, Kakabouki I, Folina A (2019). Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) crop under Mediterranean conditions: a review. Ciencia e Investigacion Agraria 46(2):51-68.
Bullock DG, Simons FW, Chung IM, Johnson GI (1993). Growth analysis of corn grown with or without starter fertilizer. Crop Science 33(1):112-117.
Busari MA, Kukal SS, Kaur A, Bhatt R, Dulazi AA (2015). Conservation tillage impacts on soil, crop and the environment. International Soil and Water Conservation Research 3(2):119-129.
Cusack D (1984). Quinoa: grain of the Incas. Ecologist 14:21-31.
Craufurd, PQ, Wheeler TR, Elli RH, Summerfiled RJ, Williams JH (1999). Effect of temperature and water deficit on water-use efficiency, carbon isotope discrimination, and specific leaf area in peanut. Crop Science 39(1):136-142.
EC 834/2007. Council Regulation (EC) No. 834/2007 of 28 June 2007 on organic production and labeling of organic products and repealing Regulation (EEC) No. 2092/91. The Council of the European Union.
El-Darier S, Hemada M, Sadek L. (2002). Dry matter distribution and growth analysis in soybeans under natural agricultural conditions. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 5(5):545-549.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2012). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - Statistics. Retrieved 2019 September 2 from http://faostat.fao.org.
Gardner FP, Pearce RB, Mitchell RL (1985). Physiology of crop plants. Iowa State University Press, Ames, USA.
Hunková E, Živčak M, Olšovská K (2011). Leaf area duration of oilseed rape (Brassica napus subsp. napus) varieties and hybrids and its relationship to selected growth and productivity parameters. Journal of Central European Agriculture 12(1):1-15.
Hunt R (1990). Basic growth analysis - plant growth analysis for beginners. Unwin Hyman, London, UK.
Jacobsen S, Bach A (1998). The influence of temperature on seed germination rate in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Seed Science and Technology 26(2):515-523.
Kakabouki I (2016). Remediation possibility of nitrate-contaminated soils using quinoa crop. PhD Thesis. University of Patras, Greece, pp 178.
Kakabouki I, Bilalis D, Karkanis A, Zervas G, Tsiplakou E, Hela D (2014). Effects of fertilization and tillage system on growth and crude protein content of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): An alternative forage. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 26(1):18-24.
Kakabouki IP, Hela D, Roussis I, Papastylianou P, Sestras AF, Bilalis DJ (2018). Influence of fertilization and soil tillage on nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency of quinoa crop (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 18(1):220-235.
Khan A, Jan M, Jan A, Shah ZA, Arif MT (2014). Efficiency of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation and redistribution in wheat as affected by tillage and nitrogen management. Journal of Plant Nutrition 37(5):723-737.
Nowak V, Du J, Charrondière UR (2016). Assessment of the nutritional composition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Food Chemistry 193:47-54.
Papastylianou P, Kakabouki I, Tsiplakou E, Travlos I, Bilalis D, Hela D, … Zervas G (2014). Effects of fertilization on yield and quality of biomass of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and green amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus L.). Bulletin UASVM Horticulture. 71(2):287-292.
Razzaghi F, Ahmadi SH, Jacobsen S-E, Jensen CR, Andersen MN (2012) Effects of salinity and soil-drying on radiation use efficiency, water productivity and yield of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 198(3):173-184.
Roussis I, Kakabouki I, Bilalis D (2019). Comparison of growth indices of Nigella sativa L. under different plant densities and fertilization. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 31(4):231-247.
Shams AS (2012). Response of quinoa to nitrogen fertilizer rates under sandy soil conditions. Proceedings of 13th International Conference of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, Egypt, 9-10 September 2012, pp 195-205.
Sugár E, Berzsenyi Z, Bónis P, Árendás T (2017). Growth analysis of winter wheat cultivars as affected by nitrogen fertilization / Wachstumsanalyse von Winterweizensorten in Abhängigkeit von Stickstoffdüngung. Die Bodenkultur: Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment 68(1):57-70.
Taiz L, Zeiger E (2002). Plant physiology. Sinauer Association Inc., Publishers Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA.
Wilson WJ (1981). Analysis of growth, photosynthesis and light interception for single plants and stands. Annals of Botany 48(4):507-512.
How to Cite
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.