Histocytological Study of Somatic Embryogenesis in the Tree Cinnamomum camphora L. (Lauraceae)

  • Ruyue JING Central South Forestry University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410004
  • Peilan WANG Central South Forestry University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410004
  • Zhen HUANG Sichuan Academy of Forestry Sciences, Chengdu 610000
  • Zhihui LI Central South Forestry University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410004
Keywords: Cinnamomum camphora L.; histocytology; malformed embryos; primary somatic embryos; secondary somatic embryos; somatic embryogenesis

Abstract

Histocytological studies were conducted on primary, secondary, and malformed embryos produced during somatic embryogenesis of Cinnamomum camphora L. to better understand its development. Exploring its callus types and structures provided a theoretical basis for clarifying the mechanism of somatic embryogenesis, which may shed light on the mechanism of zygotic embryogenesis. We used immature zygotic embryos as explants to induce somatic embryos, forming many embryogenic calli that differentiated into mature somatic embryos. Our results showed that somatic embryogenesis of C. camphora was similar to that of zygotic embryos. We have been dedifferentiated four types of callus. Compared with non-embryogenic cells, embryogenic cells had a closer arrangement, larger nucleus, thicker cytoplasm, more starch granules and easier to stain into black. Somatic embryogenesis had two pathways: direct (predominate) and indirect (rare). Embryogenic cells of C. camphora could have either an internal or external origin, the latter being primary, for which occurrence sites include epidermis and near-epidermis (little internally). Mostly arising from single cells, C. camphora follows two developmental pathways: single-cell equal as opposed to unequal, wherein both divide to form multi-cell proembryos. However, multicellular origins can occasionally occur and feature physiological isolation during somatic embryo development. This development has four embryo stages: globular, heart-shaped, torpedo, and cotyledon, with procambium cells apparent in globular embryos and late cotyledons forming “Y-shaped” vascular bundles. Secondary embryos were present in all stages, directly occurring on primary embryo’s germ and radicle end surfaces. We conclude that secondary and primary embryos of C. camphora undergo similar developmental processes. At the same time, conjoined cotyledon embryos and morphological abnormal embryos were found, with an internal origin more likely to generate abnormal embryos.

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Published
2019-12-23
How to Cite
JING, R., WANG, P., HUANG, Z., & LI, Z. (2019). Histocytological Study of Somatic Embryogenesis in the Tree Cinnamomum camphora L. (Lauraceae). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 47(4), 1348-1358. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha47411655
Section
Research Articles