Roles of Some Plant Growth Regulators on Natural and Dark-Induced Senescence in Wheat Leaf Segments
Keywords:cell death; gamma-aminobutiric acid; plant growth regulators; polyamines; senescence; Triticum aestivum L.
Senescence is an important developmental process in the life span of a plant. It is affected by several endogenous and exogenous factors such as hormones, darkness, and drought. Hormones are major endogenous factors that affect senescence intensively. In this study, our aim was to investigate the effects of different plant growth regulators; benzyl adenin (BA), spermine (Spm) and spermidine (Spd) on both natural and dark-induced senescence and on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in wheat leaf segments. Following the incubation, fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents; peroxidase activity, soluble protein, GABA and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and cell death amount were determined. Our results demonstrate that Spm and Spd accelerated senescence under light and delayed it under dark conditions. BA has delayed leaf senescence under both conditions. Cell death and MDA content showed a correlation with the senescence process. GABA content was enhanced considerably by BA, Spm and Spd applications under light conditions. According to our results we can conclude that Spm and Spd could promote senescence on wheat segments under light conditions, whereas inhibit senescence under dark conditions. In addition, BA could retard the deleterious effects on senescence under both light and dark conditions.
Ananieva K, Malbeck J, Kamínek M, Van Staden J (2004). Changes in endogenous cytokinin levels in cotyledons of Cucurbita pepo (zucchini) during natural and dark-induced senescence. Physiologia Plantarum 122(1):133-142.
Ansari MI, Lee RH, Chen SCG (2005). A novel senescence-associated gene encoding γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA):pyruvate transaminase is upregulated during rice leaf senescence. Physiologia Plantarum 123(1):1-8.
Ansari MI, Hasan S, Jalil SU (2014). Leaf senescence and GABA shunt. Bioinformation 10(12):730-732.
Balazadeh S, Parlitz S, Mueller-Roeber B, Meyer RC (2008a). Natural developmental variations in leaf and plant senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Biology 10:136-147.
Balazadeh S, Riaño-Pachón DM, Mueller-Roeber B (2008b). Transcription factors regulating leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Biology 10:63-75.
Birecka H, Briber KA, Catalfamo JL (1973). Comparative studies on tobacco pith and sweet potato root isoperoxidases in relation to injury, indoleacetic acid, and ethylene effects. Plant Physiology 52(1):43-49.
Bor M, Seckin B, Ozgur R, Yılmaz O, Ozdemir F, Turkan I (2009). Comparative effects of drought, salt, heavy metal and heat stresses on gamma-aminobutryric acid levels of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 31(3):655-659.
Bradford MM (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry 72(1-2): 248-254.
Buchanan-Wollaston V, Page T, Harrison E, Breeze E, Lim PO, Nam HG, Leaver CJ (2005). Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals significant differences in gene expression and signalling pathways between developmental and dark/starvation-induced senescence in Arabidopsis. The Plant Journal 42(4):567-585.
Cai G, Sobieszczuk-Nowicka E, Aloisi I, Fattorini L, Serafini-Fracassini D, Del Duca S (2015). Polyamines are common players in different facets of plant programmed cell death. Amino Acids 47(1):27-44.
Castillo MC, Leon J (2008). Expression of the β-oxidation gene 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase 2 (KAT2) is required for the timely onset of natural and dark-induced leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. Journal of Experimental Botany 59(8):2171-2179.
Cheng SH, Kao CH (1983). Localized effect of polyamines on chlorophyll loss. Plant and Cell Physiology 24(8):1463-1467.
Fait A, Fromm H, Walter D, Galili G, Fernie AR (2008). Highway or byway: the metabolic role of the GABA shunt in plants. Trends in Plants Science 13(1):14-19.
Forde BG, Lea PJ (2007). Glutamate in plants: metabolism, regulation, and signalling. Journal of Experimental Botany 58(9):2339-2358.
Gill SS, Tuteja N (2010). Polyamines and abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Plant Signaling and Behavior 5(1):26-33.
Gören N, Çağ S (2007). The effect of indole-3-acetic acid and benzyladenine on sequential leaf senescence on Helianthus annuus L. seedlings. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment 21(3):322-327.
Guo FQ, Crawford NM (2005). Arabidopsis nitric oxide synthase1 is targeted to mitochondria and protects against oxidative damage and dark-induced senescence. The Plant Cell 17(12):3436-3450.
Guo Y, Yang R, Chen H, Song Y, Gu Z (2012). Accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid in germinated soybean (Glycine max L.) in relation to glutamate decarboxylase and diamine oxidase activity induced by additives under hypoxia. European Food Research and Technology 234(4):679-687.
Gupta S, Agarwal VP, Gupta NK (2012). Efficacy of putrescine and benzyladenine on photosynthesis and productivity in relation to drought tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants 18(4):331-336.
He Y, Gan S (2002). A gene encoding an acyl hydrolase is involved in leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. The Plant Cell 14(4):805-815.
Hörtensteiner S, Feller U (2002). Nitrogen metabolism and remobilization during senescence. Journal of Experimental Botany 53(370):927-937.
Hu X, Xu Z, Xu W, Li J, Zhao N, Zhou Y (2015). Application of γ-aminobutyric acid demonstrates a protective role of polyamine and GABA metabolism in muskmelon seedlings under Ca(NO3)2 stress. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 92:1-10.
Karabal E, Yücel M, Öktem HA (2003). Antioxidant responses of tolerant and sensitive barley cultivars to boron toxicity. Plant Science 164(6):925-933.
Kleber-Janke T, Krupinska K (1997). Isolation of cDNA clones for genes showing enhanced expression in barley leaves during dark-induced senescence as well as during senescence under field conditions. Planta 203(3):332-340.
Lim PO, Kim HJ, Nam HG (2007). Leaf senescence. Annual Reviews on Plant Biology 58:115-136.
Liu L, Zhou Y, Zhou G, Ye R, Zhao L, Li X, Lin Y (2008). Identification of early senescence-associated genes in rice flag leaves. Plant Molecular Biology 67(1-2):37-55.
Liu X, Huang B (2002). Cytokinin effects on creeping bentgrass response to heat stress. Crop Science 42(2):466-472.
Long-Quan F, Li-wen Y, Hong-bo G, Xiao-lei W, Qing-ping X, Bin-Bin G (2012). Effects of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid on polyamine metabolism of melon seedlings under hypoxia stress. The Journal of Applied Ecology 23:1599-1606.
Longo GP, Olginati M, Rossi G, Valente M, Longo CP (1978). Effect of brief treatments with benzyladenine on growth and development of watermelon cotyledons. Plant, Cell and Environment 1(1):39-43.
Nambeesan S, Datsenka T, Ferruzzi MG, Malladi A, Mattoo AK, Handa AK (2010). Overexpression of yeast spermidine synthase impacts ripening, senescence and decay symptoms in tomato. The Plant Journal 63(5):836-847.
Noodén LD (1988). Abscisic acid, auxin and other regulators of senescence. In: Noodén LD, Leopold AC (Eds). Senescence and aging in plants. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp 1-50.
Pan S, Rasul F, Li W, Tian H, Mo Z, Duan M, Tang X (2013). Roles of plant growth regulators on yield, grain qualities and antioxidant enzyme activities in super hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice 6(1):9-13.
Pandey S, Ranade SA, Nagar PK, Kumar N (2000). Role of polyamines and ethylene as modulators of plant senescence. Journal of Bioscience 25(3):291-299.
Parsons TR, Strickland JDH (1963). Discussion of spectrophotometric determination of marine plant pigments, with revised equation for ascertaining chlorophylls and carotenoids. Journal of Marine Research 21:155-163.
Patterson JH, Newbigin ED, Tester M, Bacic A, Roessner U (2009). Metabolic responses to salt stress of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, ‘Sahara’ and ‘Clipper’, which differ in salinity tolerance. Journal of Experimental Botany 60(14):4089-4103.
Roberts MR (2007). Does GABA act as a signal in plants? Plant Signaling and Behavior 2:408-409.
Sağlam-Çağ S (2007). The effect of epibrassinolide on senescence in wheat leaves. Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment 21(1):63-65.
Shelp BJ, Mullen RT, Waller JC (2012). Compartmentation of GABA metabolism raises intriguing questions. Trends in Plant Science 17(2):57-59.
Smart CM (1994). Gene expression during leaf senescence. New Phytologist 126(3):419-448.
Sobieszczuk-Nowicka E, Zmienko A, Samelak-Czajka A, Łuczak M, Pietrowska-Borek M, Iorio R, Legocka J (2015). Dark-induced senescence of barley leaves involves activation of plastid transglutaminases. Amino Acids 47(4):825-838.
Srivastava LM (2002). Plant growth and development: hormones and environment. Academic Press, California.
Talla SK, Panigrahy M, Kappara S, Nirosha P, Neelamraju S, Ramanan R (2016). Cytokinin delays dark-induced senescence in rice by maintaining the chlorophyll cycle and photosynthetic complexes. Journal of Experimental Botany 67(6):1839-1851.
Venkatarayappa T, Fletcher RA, Thompson JE (1984). Retardation and reversal of senescence in bean leaves by benzyladenine and decapitation. Plant and Cell Physiology 25(3):407-418.
Wang C, Fan L, Gao H, Wu X, Li J, Lv G, Gong B (2014). Polyamine biosynthesis and degradation are modulated by exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid in root-zone hypoxia-stressed melon roots. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 82:17-26.
Woo HR, Kim JH, Kim J, Kim J, Lee U, Song IJ, Lim, PO (2010). The RAV1 transcription factor positively regulates leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. Journal of Experimental Botany 61(14):3947-3957.
Xiang L, Hu L, Xu W, Zhen A, Zhang L, Hu X (2016). Exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid improves the structure and function of photosystem II in muskmelon seedlings exposed to salinity-alkalinity stress. PloS One 11(10):e0164847.
Yang R, Guo Q, Gu Z (2013). GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway on γ-aminobutyric acid accumulation in germinating fava bean (Vicia faba L.) under hypoxia. Food Chemistry 136(1):152-159.
Zhang H, Zhou C (2013). Signal transduction in leaf senescence. Plant Molecular Biology 82(6):539-545.
How to Cite
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.