Physiological Responses of Paneer-Booti (Withania coagulans Dunal) to NaCl Stress Under Tissue Culture Conditions
Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses, which affects physiological traits and reduces plant productivity. Paneer-booti (Withania coagulans Dunal) is a medicinal and aromatic plant belonging to the Solanaceae family, which is an endemic plant in the Middle East. In this study, the effect of different salt concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mM NaCl) on antioxidant enzymes activity such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), proline, phenols, and flavonoids contents, relative water content (RWC), electrolyte leakage, Na+ and K+ concentrations, and chlorophyll fluorescence of Paneer-booti were studied. Results indicated that the effect of NaCl stress was significant on all traits. By increasing NaCl, to 250 mM levels, enhance activity of CAT (76.75%), POD (56.49%), and APX (44.77%), proline (79.56%), phenols (56.15%), electrolyte leakage (76.74%), Na+ (54.70%), and minimum fluorescence (Fo) (44.94%) was observed while decreased RWC (11.33%), K+ concentration (50.8%), K+/Na+ ratio (77.77%), and Fv/Fm ratio (67.5%) compared to the control treatment was noted. By increasing electrolyte leakage enhance in the rate of antioxidant enzymes activity (CAT, POD, and APX), proline, phenols, and flavonoids contents, and Na+ concentration was observed. The rate of K+/Na+ ratio is very important under salinity condition, so, the trait had a negative correlation with antioxidant enzyme activities, proline, phenols, and flavonoids contents. Our results revealed that Paneer-booti plantlet had a high tolerant to the NaCl stress due to the fact high level of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities under higher levels of salinity.
Abdalla MM, El-Khoshiban NH (2007). The influence of water stress on growth, relative water content, photosynthetic pigments, some metabolic and hormonal contents of two Triticium aestivum cultivars. Journal of Applied Sciences Research 3(12):2062-2074.
Abdeshahian M, Nabipour M, Meskarbashee M (2010). Chlorophyll fluorescence as criterion for the diagnosis salt stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants. International Journal of Chemical Engineering 71:569-571.
Abogadallah GM (2010). Insights into the significance of antioxidative defense under salt stress. Plant Signaling & Behavior 5(4):369-374.
Aghighi Shahverdi M, Omidi H, Tabatabaei SJ (2017). Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) responses to NaCl stress: growth, photosynthetic pigments, diterpene glycosides and ion content in root and shoot. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 18(4):355-360.
Al-Gehani IA, Ismail TM (2016). Effect of soil amendment on growth and physiological processes of rocket (Eruca sativa L.) grown under salinity conditions. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 10(1):15-20.
Alia P, Saradhi PP, Mohanty P (1991). Proline enhances primary photochemical activities in isolated thylakoid membranes of Brassica juncea by arresting photo inhibitory damage. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 181(3):1238-1244.
Almedia DM, Oliveria M, Saibo NJM (2017). Regulation of Na+ and K+ homeostasis in plants: towards improved salt stress tolerance in crop plants. Genetics and Molecular Biology 40(1):326-345.
Azevedo-Neto AD, Prisco JT, Eneas-Filho J, Braga de-Abreu CE, Gomes-Filho E (2006). Effect of salt stress on antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in leaves and roots of high-yielding and low-yielding maize genotypes. Environmental and Experimental Botany 56(1):87-94.
Bates LS, Waldern RP, Teave ID (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil 39(1):105-107.
Blainski A, Lopes GC, de Mello JCP (2013). Application and analysis of the Folin Ciocalteu method for the determination of the total phenolic content from Limonium brasiliense L. Molecules 18(6):6852-6865.
Bybordi A (2010). The influence of salt stress on seed germination, growth and yield of canola cultivars. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 38(1):128-133.
Carrasco-Rios L, Pinto M (2014). Effect of salt stress on antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in leaves in two contrasting corn, Lluteno and Jubilee. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 74(1):89-95.
Chance B, Maehly C (1995). Assay of catalase and peroxidases. Methods of Enzymology 11:764-775.
Cheynier V, Comte G, Davies KM, Lattanzio V, Martens S (2013). Plant phenolics: recent advances on their biosynthesis, genetics, and ecophysiology. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 72:1-20.
Di Ferdinando M, Brunetti C, Fini A, Tattini M (2012). Flavonoids as antioxidants in plants under abiotic stresses. In: Ahmad P, Prasad MNV (Eds). Abiotic stress responses in plants: metabolism, productivity and sustainability. Springer, New York pp 159-179.
Enders A, Lehmann J (2012). Comparison of wet-digestion and dry-ashing methods for total elemental analysis of biochar. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 43(7):1042-1052.
Esfandiari E, Shekari F, Shekari F, Esfandiari M (2007). The effect of salt stress on antioxidant enzymes activity and lipid peroxidation on the wheat seedling. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 35(1):48-56.
Ghoulam C, Foursy A, Fares K (2002). Effects of salt stress on growth, inorganic ions and proline accumulation in relation to osmotic adjustment in five sugar beet cultivars. Environmental and Experimental Botany 47(1):39-50.
Guan Z, Su Y, Teng N, Chen S, Sun H, Li C, Chen F (2013). Morphological, physiological and structural responses of two species of Artemisia to NaCl stress. The Scientific World Journal 309808.
Hnilickova H, Hnilicka F, Martinkova J, Kraus K (2017). Effects of salt stress on water status, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence of rocket. Plant Soil Environment 63(8):362-367.
Jafari M, Tavili A, Panahi F, Zandi Esfahan E, Ghorbani M (2018). Reclamation of arid lands. Springer Publisher.
Jaleel CA, Gopi R, Manivannan P, Panneerselvam R (2007). Antioxidative potentials as a protective mechanism in Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. plants under salinity stress. Turkish Journal of Botany 31(3):245-251.
Kaur L, Zhawar V (2016). Phenolic parameters under exogenous ABA, water stress, salt stress in two wheat cultivars varying in drought tolerance. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology 20(2):151-156.
Kumar Shrivastava A, Sahu PK (2013). Economics of yield and production of Alkaloid of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. American Journal of Plant Science 4(10):2023-2030.
Lee JH, Cho S, Paik HD, Choi CW, Nam KT, Hwang SG, Kim SK (2014). Investigation on antibacterial and antioxidant activities, phenolic and flavonoid contents of some thai edible plants as an alternative for antibiotics. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 27(10):1461-1468.
Mattioli R, Costantino P, Trovato M (2009). Proline accumulation in plants, not only stress. Plant Signaling and Behavior 4(11):1016-1018.
Maxwell K, Johnson GN (2000). Chlorophyll fluorescence A practical guide. Journal of Experimental Botany 51(345):659-668.
Mumtaz-Khan M, Al-Masoudi RSM, Al-Said F, Khan I (2013). Salinity effects on growth, electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll content and lipid peroxidation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). International Conference on Food and Agricultural Sciences Malaysia: IACSIT Press pp 28-32.
Navarro JM, Flores P, Garrido C, Martinez V (2006). Changes in the contents of antioxidant compounds in pepper fruits at ripening stages, as affected by salinity. Food Chemistry 96(1):66-73.
Ozgur R, Uzilday B, Sekmen AH, Turkan I (2013). Reactive oxygen species regulation and antioxidant defence in halophytes. Functional Plant Biology 40(9):832-847.
Panche AN, Diwan AD, Chandra SR (2016). Flavonoids: an overview. Journal of Nutritional Science 5:1-8.
Perry JJ, Shin DS, Getzoff ED, Tainer JA (2010). The structural biochemistry of the superoxide dismutases. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1804(2):245-262.
Sabir F, Sangwan RS, Kumar R, Sangwan NS (2012). Salt stress-induced responses in growth and metabolism in callus cultures and differentiating in vitro shoots of Indian ginseng (Withania somnifera Dunal). Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 31(4):537-548.
Sajjadinia A, Ershadi A, Hokmabadi H, Khayyat M, Gholami M (2010). Gas exchange activities and relative water content at different fruit growth and developmental stages of on and off cultivated pistachio trees. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 1(1):1-6.
Sanchez-Rodrıguez E, Rubio-Wilhelmi M, Cervilla LM, Blasco B, Rios JJ, Rosales MA, … Ruiz JM (2010). Genotypic differences in some physiological parameters symptomatic for oxidative stress under moderate drought in tomato plants. Plant Science 178(1):30-40.
Sangwan NS, Farooqi AHA, Sangwan RS (1994). Effect of drought on growth and essential oil metabolism in lemongrass species. New Phytologist 128(1):173-179.
Shahrifi P, Amirnia R, Majidi E, Hadi H, Roustaii M, Nakhoda B, Alipoor HM, Moradi F (2012). Relationship between drought stress and some antioxidant enzymes with cell membrane and chlorophyll stability in wheat lines. African Journal of Microbiology Research 6(3):617-623.
Shereefa LAH, Kumaraswamy M (2016). Reactive oxygen species and ascorbate–glutathione interplay in signaling and stress responses in Sesamum orientale L. against Alternaria sesami (Kawamura) Mohanty and Behera. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 15(1):48-56.
Sunohara Y, Matsumoto H (2004). Oxidative injury induced by the herbicide quinclorac on Echinochloa oryzicola Vasing and the involvement of antioxidative ability in its highly selective action in grass species. Plant Science 167(3):597-606.
Taibi K, Taibi F, Abderrahim LA, Ennjah A, Belkhodja M, Mulet JM (2016). Effect of salt stress on growth, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defence systems in Phaseolus vulgaris L. South African Journal of Botany 105:306-312.
Taibi K, Taibi F, Belkhodja M (2012). Effects of external calcium supply on the physiological response of salt stressed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Genetics and Plant Physiology 2(2-4):177-186.
Tejera NA, Soussi M, Lluch C (2006). Physiological and nutritional indicators of tolerance to salinity in chickpea plants growing under symbiotic conditions. Environmental and Experimental Botany 58(1-3):17-24.
Valifard M, Mohsenzadeh S, Kholdebarin B, Rowshan V (2014). Effects of salt stress on volatile compounds, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of Salvia mirzayanii. South African Journal of Botany 93:92-97.
Valizadeh J, Valizadeh M (2011). Development of efficient micropropagation protocol for Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal. African Journal of Biotechnology 10(39):7611-7616.
Vargas R, Pankova EI, Balyuk SA, Krasilnikov PV, Khasankhanova GM (2018). Handbook for saline soil management. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Zeng J, Cheng A, Lim D, Yi B, Wu W (2013). Effects of salt stress on the growth, physiological responses, and glycoside contents of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Journal of Agriculture Food Chemistry 61(24):5720-5726.
Zhishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W (1999). The determination of ﬂavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chemistry 64(4):555-559.
Zhu JK (2003). Regulation of ion homeostasis under salt stress. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 6(5):441-445.
Copyright (c) 2019 Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.