Intercropping of Faba Bean with Barley at Various Spatial Arrangements Affects Dry Matter and N Yield, Nitrogen Nutrition Index, and Interspecific Competition
Keywords:competition; financial yield; growth rate; indices; protein content
Intercropping is the cultivation of two or more crop species on the same area of land, and can improve yield, forage quality, and soil health. Despite the fact that intercropping is an old practice, it received significant attention the last years because of the environmental impact that it has. However, the effect of the various spatial arrangements of the different species that are used in an intercropping system was not determined. The objective of the present study was to study the yield, growth and nitrogen (N) uptake rate, N nutrition index (NNI) of barley, interspecific competition, quality and financial outcome of intercrops of faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. equina) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with various spatial arrangements (1:1, 2:2, 2:1 alternate rows, and mixed in the same row). The land equivalent ratio (LER), relative crowding coefficient (K), actual yield loss (AYL) and system productivity index (SPI) values were greater for the FB:B intercrop of 2:1, indicating the advantage of intercropping in terms of dry matter and N yield. Sole cropping of barley showed a reduction in NNI by 7 %, whereas NNI for barley increased by an average of 14% in intercropping treatments. Based on biomass production and the competition indices for dry matter and N yield, and NNI the FB:B intercrop of 2:1 was more advantageous than faba bean and barley monocrops, as well as the other intercropping treatments that were tested.
Agegnehu G, Ghizaw A, Sinebo W (2006). Yield performance and land-use efficiency of barley and faba bean mixed cropping in Ethiopian highlands. European Journal Agronomy 25(3):202-207.
Anil L, Park J, Phipps RH, Miller FA (1998). Temperate intercropping of cereals for forage: a review of the potential for growth and utilization with particular reference to the UK. Grass Forage Science 53(4):301-317.
Banik P, Sasmal T, Ghosal PK, Bagchi DK (2000). Evaluation of mustard Brassica campestris var. Toria and legume intercropping under 1:1 and 2:1 row-replacement series systems. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 185(1):9-14.
Banik P, Midya A, Sarkar BK, Ghose SS (2006). Wheat and chickpea intercropping systems in an additive series experiment: Advantages and weed smothering. European Journal Agronomy 24(4):325-332.
Bedoussac L, Justes E (2010). Dynamic analysis of competition and complementarity for light and N use to understand the yield and the protein content of a durum wheat-winter pea intercrop. Plant and Soil 330(1-2):37-54.
Bedoussac L, Justes E (2011). A comparison of commonly used indices for evaluating species interactions and intercrop efficiency: Application to durum wheat-winter pea intercrops. Field Crops Research 124(1):25-36.
Bedoussac L, Journet E-P, Hauggaard-Nielsen H, Naudin C, Corre-Hellou G, Steen Jensen E, … Justes E (2015). Ecological principles underlying the increase of productivity achieved by cereal-grain legume intercrops in organic farming. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 35(3):911-935.
Berkenkamp B, Meeres J (1987). Mixtures of annual crops for forage in central Alberta. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 67(1):175-183.
Brooker RW, Bennett AE, Cong W-F, Daniell TJ, George TS, Hallett PD, … White PJ (2015). Improving intercropping: a synthesis of research in agronomy, plant physiology and ecology. New Phytologist 206(1):107-117.
Carr PM, Horsley RD, Poland WW (2004). Barley, oat and cereal-pea mixtures as dryland forages in the Northern Great Plains. Agronomy Journal 96(3):677-684.
Chapagain T, Riseman A (2014). Barley-pea intercropping: Effects on land productivity, carbon and nitrogen transformations. Field Crops Research 166:18-25.
Chen C, Westcott M, Neill K, Wichman D, Knox M (2004). Row configuration and nitrogen application for barley-pea intercropping in Montana. Agronomy Journal 96(6):1730-1738.
Dhima KV, Lithourgidis AS, Vasilakoglou IB, Dordas CA (2007). Competition indices of common vetch and cereal intercrops in two seeding ratio. Field Crops Research 100(2-3):249-256.
Dordas CA, Lithourgidis AS (2011). Growth, yield and nitrogen performance of faba bean intercrops with oat and triticale at varying seeding ratios. Grass Forage Science 66(4):569-577.
Dordas CA, Vlachostergios DN, Lithourgidis AS (2012). Growth dynamics and agronomic-economic benefits of pea-oat and pea-barley intercrops. Crop Pasture Science 63(1):45-52.
Dumanski J, Coote D, Lucerek G, Lok C (1986). Soil conservation in Canada. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 41(4):204-210.
Esmaeili A, Sadeghpour A, Hosseini SMB, Jahanzad E, Chaichi MR, Hashemi M (2011). Evaluation of seed yield and competition indices for intercropped annual medic–barley. International Journal of Plant Production 5(4):395-404.
Fageria NK, Baligar VC (2005). Enhancing nitrogen use efficiency in crop plants. Advances of Agronomy 88:97-185.
Field A (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. Thousand Oaks, California. Sage Publications Inc.
Génard T, Etienne P, Laîné P, Yvin J-C, Diquélou S (2016). Nitrogen transfer from Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. and Vicia sativa L. contribute differently to rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) nitrogen nutrition. Heliyon 2(9):e00150.
Ghosh PK (2004). Growth, yield, competition and economics of groundnut/cereal fodder intercropping systems in the semi-arid tropics of India. Field Crops Research 88(2-3):227-237.
Hair J, Anderson R, Tatham R, Black W (1995). Multivariate data analysis with readings. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International, Inc.
Hauggaard-Nielsen H, Ambus P, Jensen ES (2003). The comparison of nitrogen use and leaching in sole cropped versus intercropped pea and barley. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 65(3):289-300.
Hauggaard-Nielsen H, Ambus P, Jensen ES (2001). Interspecific competition, N use and interference with weeds in pea-barley intercropping. Field Crops Research 70(2):101-109.
Hauggaard-Nielsen H, Gooding M, Ambus P, Corre-Hellou G, Crozat Y, Dahlmann C, … Jensen ES (2009). Pea-barley intercropping and short-term subsequent crop effects across European organic cropping conditions. Nutrient Cycling Agroecosystems 85(2):141-155.
Herbert SJ, Putman DH, Poos-Floyd ML, Vargas A, Creighton JF (1984). Forage yield of intercropped corn and soybean in various planting patterns. Agronomy Journal 76(4):507-510.
Jamont M, Piva G, Fustec J (2013). Sharing N resources in the early growth of rapeseed intercropped with faba bean: does N transfer matter? Plant and Soil 371(1-2):641-653.
Jensen ES, Peoples MB, Hauggaard-Nielsen H (2010). Faba bean in cropping systems. Field Crops Research 115:203-216.
Justes E, Jeuffroy MH, Mary B (1997). Wheat, barley and durum wheat. In: Lemaire G (Ed). Diagnosis of the nitrogen status in crops Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany pp 73-91.
Karlidag H, Yildirim E (2007). The effects of nitrogen fertilization on intercropped strawberry and broad bean. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 29(4):61-74.
Li L, Sun J, Zhang F, Guo T, Bao X, Smith FA, Smith SE (2006). Root distribution and interactions between intercropped species. Oecologia 147(2):280-290.
Lithourgidis AS, Vasilakoglou IB, Dhima KV, Dordas CA, Yiakoulaki MD (2006). Forage yield and quality of common vetch mixtures with oat and triticale in two seeding ratios. Field Crops Research 99(2-3):106-113.
Lithourgidis AS, Dordas CA (2010). Forage yield, growth rate and nitrogen uptake of wheat, barley and rye-faba bean intercrops in three seeding ratios. Crop Science 50(5):2148-2158.
Lithourgidis AS, Dordas CA, Damalas CA, Vlachostergios DN (2011a). Annual intercrops: an alternative pathway for sustainable agriculture. Australian Journal of Crop Science 5(4):396-410.
Lithourgidis AS, Vlachostergios DN, Dordas CA, Damalas CA (2011b). Dry matter yield, nitrogen content, and competition in pea-cereal intercroping systems. European Journal of Agronomy 34(4):287-294.
López-Bellido RJ, López-Bellido L (2001). Efficiency of nitrogen in wheat under Mediterranean conditions: effect of tillage, crop rotation and N fertilization. Field Crops Research 71(1):31-46.
Malézieux E, Crozat Y, Dupraz C, Laurans M, Makowski D, Ozier-Lafontaine H, … Valantin-Morison M (2009). Mixing plant species in cropping systems: concepts, tools and models. A review. Agronomy of Sustainable Development 29:43-62.
Midya A, Bhattacharjee K, Ghose SS, Banik P (2005). Deferred seeding of blackgram Phaseolus mungo L. in rice Oryza sativa L. field on yield advantages and smothering of weeds. Journal of Agronomy of Crop Science 191(3):195-201.
Mead R, Willey RW (1980). The concept of a land equivalent ratio and advantages in yields for intercropping. Experimental Agriculture 16(3):217-228.
Monti M, Pellicanò A, Santonoceto C, Preiti G, Pristeri A (2016). Yield components and nitrogen use in cereal-pea intercrops in Mediterranean environment. Field Crops Research 196:379-388.
Neugschwandtner RW, Kaul H (2015). Nitrogen uptake, use and utilization efficiency by oat–pea intercrops. Field Crops Research 179:113-119.
Osman AE, Nersoyan N (1986). Effect of the proportion of species on the yield and quality of forage mixtures, and on the yield of barley in the following year. Experimental Agriculture 22(4):345-351.
Sparks DL, Page AL, Helmke PA, Loeppert RH, Soltanpour PN, Tabatabai MA, … Sumner ME (1996). Methods of soil analysis: Part 3-Chemical methods Agron. Monogr. 9, 2nd ed. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI.
SPSS (1998). SPSS Base 8.0 user’s guide and SPSS applications guide. Chicago, IL.
Steel RGD, Torrie JH, Dickey DA (1997). Principles and procedures of statistics: A biometrical approach. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Weigelt A, Jolliffe P (2003). Indices of plant competition. Journal of Ecology 91(5):707-720.
Vandermeer JH (1990). Intercropping. In: Caroll CR, Vandermeer JH, Rosset PM (Eds). Agroecology. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 481-516.
Verret V, Gardarin A, Makowski D, Lorina M, Cadoux S, Butier A, Valantin-Morison M (2017). Assessment of the benefits of frost-sensitive companion plants in winter rapeseed. European Journal of Agronomy 91:93-103.
Vlachostergios DN, Dordas, CA, Lithourgidis AS (2015). Forage yield, protein concentration and interspecific competition in red pea-cereal intercrops. Experimental Agriculture 51(4):635-650.
Ziadi Ν, Bélanger G, Claessens A, Lefebvre L, Cambouris AN, Tremblay N, … Parent LE (2010). Determination of a critical nitrogen dilution curve for spring wheat. Agronomy Journal 102(1):241-250.
How to Cite
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.