Somatic Embryogenesis Induction in Leaf and Root Explants of Allophylus edulis (A.St.-Hil., Cambess. and A. Juss.) Radlk.
Allophylus edulis (A.St.-Hil., Cambess. and A. Juss.) Radlk., commonly known as cocum, belongs to the Sapindaceae family. This species is of great medicinal interest, with studies showing that its fruits have antioxidant, anti-cholinesterase, and cytotoxic activity. In addition, it is used in traditional medicine as an antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory and antihypertensive. The objective of this study was to perform somatic embryogenesis in vitro from leaf and root explants of Allophylus edulis, using different 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) concentrations combined with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). All treatments exhibited 100% callus formation, except for the treatment without supplementation of growth regulators. The calluses developed in treatments from leaf explants showed up to two colors (brown and brown/cream), and the highest fresh and dry mass was observed in the treatment with 0.5 mg L-1 of BAP with 0.1 mg L-1 of NAA. There was no shoot formation from the leaf explants. The callogenesis in treatments from root segments showed callus formation with up to three colors (brown, brown/cream, and cream/green), and the highest fresh and dry mass was obtained when cultivated with 2.0 mg L-1 of BAP combined with 0.1 mg L-1 of NAA. These auxin and cytokinin concentrations also showed a higher number of shoots. The interaction between auxin and cytokinin is recommended to obtain somatic embryogenesis in root segments and callus with morphological characteristics suitable for organogenesis.
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