The Impact of Ammonium to Nitrate Ratio on the Growth and Nutritional Status of Kale
The effect of four NH4:NO3 ratios in the nutrient solution (0:100; 25:75; 50:50 and 75:25) on growth and nutrient concentrations of four kale (Brassica oleraceae L. var. acephala) hybrids: ‘CN KAL 1029’, ‘Redbor’, ‘Winnetou’, ‘Reflex’ and one indigenous cultivar: ‘Ntopia Mytilinis’ was investigated. In the first four weeks of cultivation none of the NH4/NO3 ratios applied induced adverse effects on most growth characteristics determined whereas plants grown with 75% NH4-N accumulated higher leaf N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu concentrations. After an eight week period, plants under 75% NH4-N showed significant reductions in many growth parameters suggesting a probable preference of kale plants grown for a prolonged period towards either a complete exclusion of NH4 from the nutrient solution or a 25:75 or a 50:50 NH4/NO3 ratio. Among the genotypes tested, ‘Ntopia Mytilinis’ produced the greatest yield with the lowest leaf nitrate accumulation.
Abu-Rayyan A, Kharawish BH, Al-Ismail K (2004). Nitrate content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) heads in relation to plant spacing, nitrogen form and irrigation level. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 84(9):931-936.
Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture (2018). National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Legacy Release. Kale raw, Basic Report: 11233. https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/11233.
Alan R (1989). The effect of nitrogen nutrition on growth, chemical composition and response of cucumber Cucumis sativius L. to nitrogen forms in solution culture. Journal of Horticultural Science 64(4):467-474.
Allen SE (1989). Chemical Analysis of Ecological Materials. Oxford (UK). Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Assimakopoulou A (2006). Effect of iron supply and nitrogen form on growth, nutritional status and ferric reducing activity of spinach in nutrient solution culture. Scientia Horticulturae 110(1):21-29.
Ayaz FA, Glew RH, Millson M, Huang HS, Chuang LT, Sanz C, Hayırlıoglu-Ayaz S (2006). Nutrient contents of kale (Brassica oleraceae L. var. acephala DC). Food Chemistry 96(4):572-579.
Ayaz FA, Hayırlıoglu-Ayaz S, Alpay-Karaoglu S, Gruz J, Valentova K, Ulrichova J, Strnad M (2008). Phenolic acid contents of kale (Brassica oleraceae L. var. acephala DC) extracts and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Food Chemistry 107(1):19-25.
Balkaya A, Yanmaz R (2005). Promising kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) populations from Black Sea region, Turkey. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 33(1):1-7.
Beevers L, Hageman RH (1969). Nitrate reduction in higher plants. Plant Physiology 20(1):495-522.
Cataldo DA, Maroon M, Schrader LE, Youngs VL (1975). Rapid colorimetric determination of nitrate in plant tissue by nitration of salicylic acid. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 6(1):71-80.
Chweya JA (1988). Contents of nitrate-N and thiocyanate ions in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala DC) leaves from kale growing areas in Kenya. Acta Horticulturae 218:181-190.
Emongor V, Pule-Meulengerg F, Phole O (2004). Effect of promalin on growth and development of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala). Journal of Agronomy 3(3):208-214.
Fageria VD (2001). Nutrient interactions in crop plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition 24(8):1269-1290.
Findenegg GR (1987). A comparative study of ammonium toxicity at different constant pH of the nutrient solution. Plant and Soil 103(2):239-243.
Grace ND, Craighed M, Watt B (2000). The macro- and micro-element content of swedes and kales in Southland, New Zealand, and the effect of trace element amended fertilizers on their Co, Se, and Cu concentrations. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 43(4):533-540.
Gorenjak AH, Cencič A (2013). Nitrate in vegetables and their impact on human health. A review. Acta Alimentaria 42 (2):158-172.
Guo S, Brtick H, Sattelmacher B (2002). Effects of supplied nitrogen form on growth and water uptake of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants. Plant and Soil 239(2):267-275.
Hajiboland R, Xang XE, Römheld V (2003). Effects of bicarbonate and high pH on growth of Zn-efficient and Zn-inefficient genotypes of rice, wheat and rye. Plant and Soil 250(2):349-357.
Hoagland DR, Arnon DI (1938). The water culture method for growing plants without soil. Circular. California Agricultural Experiment Station, 347(2nd edit).
Hu L, Yu J, Liao W, Zhang G, Xie J, Lv J, … Bu R (2015). Moderate ammonium:nitrate alleviates low light intensity stress in mini Chinese cabbage seedling by regulating root architecture and photosynthesis. Scientia Horticulturae 186:143-153.
Kim BY, Yoon S (2003). Analysis of nitrate contents of Korean common foods. Journal of the Korean Society for Food Science and Nutrition 32(6):779784.
Kim S-J, Kawaharada C, Ishii G (2006). Effect of ammonium: nitrate nutrient ratio on nitrate and glucosinolate contents of hydroponically-grown rocket salad (Eruca sativa Mill.). Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 52(3):387-393.
Kopsell DE, Kopsell DA, Lefsrud MG, Curran-Celentano J (2004). Variability in elemental accumulations among Leafy Brassica oleracea cultivars and selections. Journal of Plant Nutrition 27(10):1813-1826.
Kopsell DE, Dean A, Kopsell Carl E Sams, Barickman T. Casey (2013). Ratio of calcium to magnesium influences biomass, elemental accumulations, and pigment concentrations in kale. Journal of Plant Nutrition 36(14):2154-2165.
Korus A, Lisiewska Z (2009). Effect of cultivar and harvest date of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) on content of nitrogen compounds. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 18(2):235-241.
Kotsiras A, Olympios CM, Drosopoulos J, Passam HC (2002). Effects of nitrogen form and concentration on the distribution of ions within cucumber fruits. Scientia Horticulturae 95:175-183.
Lefsrud M, Kopsell D, Wenzel A, Sheehan J (2007). Changes in kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) carotenoid and chlorophyll pigment concentrations during leaf ontogeny. Scientia Horticulturae 112:136-141.
Levander OA (1990). Fruit and vegetable contributions to dietary mineral intake in human health and disease. HortScience 25(12):1486-1488.
Lotti C, Iovieno P, Centomani I, Marcotrigiano AR, Fanelli V, Mimiola G, … Ricciardi L (2018). Genetic, bio-agronomic, and nutritional characterization of kale (Brassica Oleracea L. var. acephala) diversity in Apulia, Southern Italy. Diversity 10(2):25.
Lu Ying Lin, Yang Chun Xu, Qi Rong Shen, Cai Xia Dong (2009). Effects of different nitrogen forms on the growth and cytokinin content in xylem sap of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedlings. Plant and Soil 315(1-2):67-77.
Marschner H (1997). Mineral nutrition of higher plants. London (UK): Αcademic Press.
Mengel K, Planker R, Hoffman B (1994). Relationship between leaf apoplast pH and Fe chlorosis of sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.). Journal of Plant Nutrition 17(6):1053-1064.
Mills HA, Jones Jr JB (1996). Plant analysis handbook II. Athens (GA): MicroMacro Publishing. Chapter, Essential micronutrients pp 8-35.
Palaniswamy UR, Bernard BB, McAvoy RJ (2002). Trends in new crops and new uses. Alexandria: ASHS Press. Chapter, Effect of nitrate: ammonium nitrogen ratio in hydroponics on the oxalate levels of Purslane pp 453-455.
Pill WG, Lambeth VN (1977). Effects of NH4 and NO3 nutrition with and without pH adjustment on tomato growth, ion composition, and water relationships. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 100:78-81.
Rideout JW, Chaillou S, Rape CD, Morot-Gaudry JF (1994). Ammonium and nitrate uptake by soybean during recovery from nitrogen deprivation. Journal of Experimental Botany 45(1):23-33.
Šamec D, Urlić B, Salopek-Sondi B (2018). Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) as a superfood: Review of the scientific evidence behind the statement. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2018.1454400.
Santamaria P, Elia A (1997). Producing nitrate free endive heads: Effect of nitrogen form on growth, yield and ion composition of endive. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 122(1):140-145.
Santamaria P, Elia A, Papa G, Serio F (1998). Nitrate and ammonium nutrition in chicory and rocket salad plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition 21(9):1779-1789.
Savvas D, Karagianni V, Kotsiras A, Demopoulos V, Karkamisi I, Pakou P (2003). Interactions between ammonium and pH of the nutrient solution supplied to gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) grown in pumice. Plant and Soil 254(2):393-402.
Sikora E, Bodziarczyk I (2012). Composition and antioxidant activity of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) raw and cooked. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria 11(3):239-248.
Simonne EH, Smittle DA, Mills HA (1993). Turnip growth, leaf yield, and leaf nutrient composition responses to nitrogen forms. Journal of Plant Nutrition 16(12):2341-2351.
Simonne E, Simonne A, Wells L (2001). Nitrogen source affects crunchiness, but not lettuce yield. Journal of Plant Nutrition 24(4-5):743-751.
Smiciklas KD, Below FE (1992a). Role of nitrogen form in determining yield of field-grown maize. Crop Science 32(5):1220-1225.
Smiciklas KD, Below FE (1992b). Role of cytokinin in enhanced productivity of maize supplied with NH4+ and NO3–. Plant and Soil 142(2):307-313.
Tabatabaei SJ, Fatemi LS, Fallahi E (2006). Effect of ammonium:nitrate ratio on yield, calcium concentration, and photosynthesis rate in strawberry. Journal of Plant Nutrition 29(7):1273-1285.
Tabatabaei SJ, Yusefi M, Hajiloo J (2008). Effects of shading and NO3:NH4 ratio on the yield, quality and N metabolism in strawberry. Scientia Horticulturae 116:264-272.
Thavarajah D, Thavarajah P, Abare A, Basnagala S, Lacher C, Smith P, Combs Jr GF (2016). Mineral micronutrient and prebiotic carbohydrate profiles of USA-grown kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 52:9-15.
Therios IN, Sakellariadis SD (1988). Effects of nitrogen form on growth and mineral composition of olive plants (Olea europaea L.). Scientia Horticulturae 35:167-177.
Thavarajah D, Thavarajah P, Abare A, Basnagala S, Lacher C, Smith P, Combs GF (2016). Mineral micronutrient and prebiotic carbohydrate profiles of USA-grown kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala). Journal of Food Compositions and Analysis 52:9-15.
Wang XF, Tadashi I (1997). Effect of NO3-N in the additional nutrient solution on the growth, yield, and NO3 content in spinach plant grown in hydroponics. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Sciences 66(2):313-319.
Wang Z, Li S (2004). Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on plant growth and nitrate accumulation in vegetables. Journal of Plant Nutrition 27(3):539-556.
Wei LC, Ocumpaugh WR, Loeppert RH (1994). Plant growth and nutrient uptake characteristics of Fe deficiency chlorosis susceptible and resistant subclovers. Plant and Soil 165(2):235-240.
Zhang FC, Kang SZ, Li FS, Zhang JH (2007). Growth and major nutrient concentrations in Brassica campestris supplied with different NH4+/NO3– ratios. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 49(4):455-462.
Copyright (c) 2019 Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.