Priming with Vitamin U Enhances Cold Tolerance of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)
Priming may be an efficient pre-treatment of plants in order to enhance their ability to cope with unfavourable growth conditions, and to improve defensive metabolism through elevated levels of protective substances which may also act as health-promoting agents upon human consumption. The aim of this work was to evaluate the beneficial influence of priming with the naturally occurring, but scarcely known vitamin U (S-methylmethionine) on cold stress tolerance of lettuce (the frequently grown ‘May King’ cultivar). Effects on germination, photosynthetic efficiency, as well as on health-promoting carotenoid and vitamin C contents were investigated. Photosynthetic capacity, strongly related to productivity, was evaluated with parameters of induced chlorophyll fluorescence and of leaf gas exchange through stomata, using plants grown in hydroponic cultures. Priming with vitamin U significantly compensated for the delaying effect of low temperature (5 °C) on seed germination, as well as for inhibition of light-converting photochemical reactions and of carbon dioxide assimilation by cold stress. Use of vitamin U to prime lettuce plantlets for low temperature stress resulted in an elevated content of carotenoid pigments and of vitamin C in leaves, which improve the quality of consumed lettuce with respect to the health-promoting capacity. This beneficial influence of vitamin U was not proportional with its concentration (2 mM had no stronger effects than 0.25 mM), so small amounts of this substance were sufficient for a sustained efficiency in promoting hardening against chilling temperatures. This is the first report on priming of lettuce for cold tolerance by using S-methylmethionine (vitamin U), with a possible application in improvement of crop quality and productivity.
Ahmad S, Gordon-Weeks R, Pickett J, Ton J (2010). Natural variation in priming of basal resistance: from evolutionary origin to agricultural exploitation. Molecular Plant Pathology 11(6):817-827.
Altunkaya A, Becker EM, Gokmen V, Skibsted LH (2009). Antioxidant activity of lettuce extract and synergism with added phenolic antioxidants. Food Chemistry 115(1):163-168.
Aranega-Bou P, Leyva M, Finiti I, Garcia-Agustin P, Gonzalez-Bosch C (2014). Priming of plant resistance by natural compounds. Hexanoic acid as a model. Frontiers in Plant Sciences 5:1-12.
Bartha C, Fodorpataki L, Martinez-Ballesta MC, Popescu O, Carvajal M (2015). Sodium accumulation contributes to salt stress tolerance in lettuce cultivars. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality 88(1):42-48.
Bartha C, Fodorpataki L, Szekely G, Popescu O (2010). Physiological diversity of lettuce cultivars exposed to salinity stress. Contributii Botanice 45:47-56.
Beckers GJ, Conrath U (2007). Priming for stress resistance: from the lab to the field. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 10(4):425-431.
Bourgis F, Roje S, Nuccio ML, Fisher DB, Tarczynski MC, Li C, … Hanson AD (1999). S-methylmethionine plays a major role in phloem sulfur transport and is synthesized by a novel type of methyltransferase. The Plant Cell 11(8):1485-1497.
Conrath U (2011). Molecular aspects of defense priming. Trends in Plant Sciences 16(10):524-531.
Filippou P, Tanou G, Molassiotis A, Fotopoulos V (2013). Plant acclimation to environmental stress using priming agents. In: Tuteja N, Gill SS (Eds). Plant acclimation to environmental stress. Springer, New York, pp 1-27.
Fodorpataki L, Keresztes ZG, Bartha C, Marton AL, Barna S (2010). Methylmethionine (vitamin U) alleviates negative effects of chemical stressors on photosynthesis of the green alga Scenedesmus opoliensis. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Photosynthesis. Kluwers Academic Publishing, Beijing, pp 798-801.
Fodorpataki L, Nagy K, Bartha L, Bartha C (2008). Comparison of halotolerance of lettuce varieties adapted to low and high temperature, based on ecophysiological characteristics. In: Orosz Z, Szabo V, Molnar G, Fazekas I (Eds). Environmental Biology. University Press, Debrecen, Hungary, pp 185-191.
Hoagland DR, Arnon DI (1950). The water-culture method for growing plants without soil. Californian Agricultural Experimental Station Circular 347(2):1-32.
Huag G-T, Ma S-L, Bai L-P, Zhang L, Ma H (2012). Signal transduction during cold, salt and drought stresses in plants. Molecular Biology Reports 39(2):969-987.
Kalhor MS, Aliniaeifard S, Seif M, Asayesh EJ, Bernard F (2018). Enhanced salt tolerance and photosynthetic performance: Implication of γ-amino butyric acid application in salt-exposed lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 130:157-172.
Kampfenkel K, Montagu M, Inze D (1995). Extraction and determination of ascorbate and dehydroascorbate from plant tissue. Analytical Biochemistry 225(1):165-167.
Koh I (2002). Acclimative response to temperature stress in higher plants: approaches of gene engineering for temperature tolerance. Annual Review in Plant Biology 53(1):225-245.
Kristkova E, Dolezalova I, Lebeda A, Vinter V, Novotna A (2008). Description of morphological characters of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) genetic resources. Horticultural Science 35(3):113-129.
Lee SK, Kader AA (2000). Preharvest and postharvest factors influencing vitamin C content of horticultural crops. Postharvest Biology and Technology 20(3):207-220.
Lichtenthaler HK, Buschmann C, Knapp M (2005). How to correctly determine the different chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and the chlorophyll fluorescence decrease ratio RFd of leaves with PAM fluorometer. Photosynthetica 43(3):379-393.
Lichtenthaler HK, Wellburn AR (1983). Determination of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents. Biochemical Society Transactions 11:591-592.
Ludmerszki E, Rudnoy S, Almasi A, Szigeti Z, Racz I (2011). The beneficial effects of S-methylmethionine in maize in the case of Maize dwarf mosaic virus infection. Acta Biologica Szegediensis 55(1):109-112.
Macedo AF (2012). Abiotic stress responses in plants: metabolism to productivity. In: Ahmad P, Prasad MNV (Eds). Abiotic stress responses in plants: metabolism, productivity and sustainability. Springer, New York, pp 41-62.
McRorie RA, Sutherland GL, Lewis G, Barton MS, Glazener MR (1954). Isolation and identification of a naturally occurring analog of methionine. Journal of the American Chemical Society 76(1):115-118.
Menegus F, Lilliu I, Brambilla I, Bonfa M, Scaglioni L (2004). Unusual accumulation of S-methyl-methionine in aerobic-etiolated and anoxic rice seedlings: an 1H-NMR study. Journal of Plant Physiology 161(6):725-732.
Miret JA, Munne-Bosch S (2014). Plant amino acid-derived vitamins: biosynthesis and function. Amino Acids 46(4):809-824.
Oh M-M, Carey EE, Rajashekar CB (2009). Environmental stresses induce health-promoting phytochemicals in lettuce. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 47(7):578-583.
Oh M-M, Trick HN, Rajashekar CB (2009). Secondary metabolism and antioxidants are involved in environmental adaptation and stress tolerance in lettuce. Journal of Plant Physiology 166(2):180-191.
Paldi K, Racz I, Szigeti Z, Rudnoy S (2014). S-methylmethionine alleviates the cold stress by protection of the photosynthetic apparatus and stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Biologia Plantarum 58(1):189-194.
Racz I, Paldi K, Szalai G, Janda T, Pal M (2008). S-methylmethionine reduces cell membrane damage in higher plants exposed to low temperature stress. Journal of Plant Physiology 165(14):1483-1490.
Ranocha P, McNeil SD, Ziemak MJ, Li C, Tarczynski MC, Hanson AD (2001). The S-methylmethionine cycle in angiosperms: ubiquity, antiquity and activity. The Plant Journal 25(5):575-584.
Rejeb IB, Miranda LA, Cordier M, Mauch-Mani B (2014). Induced tolerance and priming for abiotic stress in plants. In: Gaur RK, Sharma P (Eds). Molecular approaches in plant abiotic stress. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA, pp 33-43.
Roje S (2006). S-adenosyl-L-methionine: beyond the universal methyl group donor. Phytochemistry 67(15):1686-1698.
Schonhof I, Klaring H-P, Krumbein A, Clausen W, Schreiner M (2007). Effect of temperature increase under low radiation conditions on phytochemicals and ascorbic acid in greenhouse grown broccoli. Agricultural Ecosystems and Environment 119(1-2):103-111.
Sgherri C, Perez-Lopez U, Micaelli F, Miranda-Apodaca J, Mena-Petite A (2017). Elevated CO2 and salinity are responsible for phenolics-enrichment in two differently pigmented lettuces. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 115:269-278.
Shavrukov Y, Genc Y, Hayes J (2012). The use of hydroponics in abiotic stress tolerance research. In: Asao T (Ed). Hydroponics - a standard methodology for plant biological researches. InTech, Rijeka, pp 27-55.
Smirnoff N (2005). Ascorbate, tocopherol and carotenoids: metabolism, pathway engineering and functions. In: Smirnoff N (Ed). Antioxidants and reactive oxygen species in plants. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 53-86.
Szego D, Lorincz I, Soos V, Paldi E, Visnovitz T (2009). Protective effect of the naturally occurring, biologically active compound S-methylmethionine in maize seedlings exposed to a short period of cold. Cereal Research Comments 37(3):419-429.
Zagorchev L, Seal CE, Kranner I, Odjakova M (2013). A central role for thiols in plant tolerance to abiotic stress. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 14(4):7405-7432.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.