In vitro Antifungal Activity of a New Bioproduct Obtained from Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins on Botrytis cinerea Mycelium and Spores
Keywords:biological activity; minimum fungicidal concentration; natural fungicide; necrotrophic fungus; polyphenolic compounds
Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungus that affects over 200 plant species. In vineyards, this pathogen is responsible for one of the most important diseases, commonly known as botrytis bunch rot or grey mould. Keeping infection under control with synthetic fungicides leads to an increased biological resistance of pathogen populations. An alternative way to synthetic products is to obtain natural fungicides by using bioactive compounds of plants. This study focuses on the antifungal properties of a new bioproduct obtained from polymeric proanthocyanidins extracted from grape seeds of ‘Fetească neagră’ variety. The bioproduct in solid state presented a total content of polyphenols of 0.625 mg GAE mg-1, a polyphenolic index of 17.40 and an antioxidant activity of 91.27% scavenged DPPH. The bioproduct with polyphenolic structure showed a moderate effect on the radial growth of fungal mycelium, at EC50 values between 11.23 and 12.15 mg mL-1. Effective antifungal activity was showed in the inhibition of spore germination, where the EC50 values varied from 1.14 to 1.47 mg mL-1. These in vitro results sustain the possibility of including the bioproduct in the category of natural fungicides for biological control against Botrytis cinerea fungus.
Ahmed E, Arshad M, Khan MZ, Amjad MS, Sadaf HM, Riaz I, Sabir S, Ahmad N, Sabaoon (2017). Secondary metabolites and their multidimensional prospective in plant life. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 6(2):205-214.
Bollag JM, Leonowickz A (1984). Comparative studies of extracellular fungal laccases. Applied Environmental Microbiology 48:849-854.
Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier M, Berset C (1995). Use of free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Science and Technology 28(1):25-30.
Castellari M, Sartini E, Fabiani A, Arfelli G, Amati A (2002). Analysis of wine phenolics by high-performance liquid chromatography using a monolithic type column. Journal of Chromatography 973(1-2):221-227.
Chong J, Poutaraud A, Hugueney P (2009). Metabolism and roles of stilbenes in plants. Plant Science 177:143-155.
Elad Y, Evensen K (1995). Physiological aspects of resistance to Botrytis cinerea. Phytopathology 85:637-643.
Filimon VR, Nechita A, Damian D, Pasa R, Filimon R, Baetu M, Mihai CT, Niculaua M (2017). Separation and characterisation of the main proanthocyanidin fractions of grape seeds. Lucrari Stiin?ifice USAMV Iasi, Seria Horticultura 60(1):69-74.
Fourie PH, Holz G (2001). Incomplete cross-resistance to folpet and iprodione in Botrytis cinerea from grapevine in South Africa. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture 22:3-7.
Gatto MA, Ippolito A, Linsalata V, Cascarano NA, Nigro F, Vanadia S, Di Venere D (2011). Activity of extracts from wild edible herbs against postharvest fungal diseases of fruit and vegetables. Postharvest Biology & Technology 61:72-82.
Goetz G, Fkyerat A, Métais N, Kunz M, Tabacchi R, Pezet R, Pont V (1999). Resistance factors to grey mould in grape berries: identification of some phenolics inhibitors of Botrytis cinerea stilbene oxidase. Phytochemistry 52:759-767.
Kocic-Tanackov SD, Dimic GR (2013). Antifungal activity of essential oils in the control of food-borne fungi growth and myco-toxin biosynthesis in food. In: Mendez-Vilas A (Ed). Microbial pathogens and strategies for combating them. Science, Technology and Education pp 838-849.
Ky I, Lorrain B, Jourdes M, Pasquier G, Fermaud M, Gény L, Rey P, Doneche B, Teissedre PL (2012). Assessment of grey mould (Botrytis cinerea) impact on phenolic and sensory quality of Bordeaux grapes, musts and wines for two consecutive vintages. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 18:215-226.
Lee HC, Cheng SS, Chang ST (2005). Antifungal property of the essential oils and their constituents from Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf against tree pathogenic fungi. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 85:2047-2053.
Lingk W (1991). Health risk evaluation of pesticide contamination in drinking water. Gesunde Pflangen 43:21-25.
Lupascu T, Lupascu L (2006). Procedeu de ob?inere a enotaninurilor hidrosolubile [Process for obtaining water-soluble enotanins]. Patent no. MD 3125 F1 2006.08.31. State Agency on Intellectual Property, Republic of Moldova. Retrieved 2016 February 18 from http://www.db.agepi.md/inventions/results.
Mendoza L, Cotoras M, Vivanco M, Matsuhiro B, Torres S, Aguirre M (2013). Evaluation of antifungal properties against the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea of anthocyanin rich-extracts obtained from grape pomaces. Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society 58(2):1725-1727.
Monagas M, Gómez-Cordovés C, Bartolomé B, Laureano O, Da Silva JR (2003). Monomeric, oligomeric, and polymeric flavan-3-ol composition of wines and grapes from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Graciano, Tempranillo, and Cabernet Sauvignon. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51:6475-6481.
Nassr S, Barakat R (2013). Effect of factors on conidium germination of Botrytis cinerea in vitro. International Journal of Plant and Soil Science 2(1):41-54.
Nechita A, Alexandru C, Filimon VR, Filimon R, Damian D, Nechita B, Pasa R (2017a). Antimicrobial activity of an active biological bioproduct obtained from grape seeds. Lucrari Stiin?ifice, USAMV Iasi Seria Horticultura 60(1):91-96.
Nechita A, Filimon R, Zaldea G, Filimon VR, Damian D, Nechita B, Pasa R (2017b). Valuation of vegetal residue of grape seeds resulting from the extractive processes of phenolic compounds. Lucrari Stiin?ifice USAMV Iasi, Seria Horticultura, 60(1): 85-90.
Osman AM, Wong KKY, Fernyhough A (2007). The laccase/ABTS system oxidizes (+)-catechin to oligomeric products. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 40(5):1272-1279.
Oszmianski J, Sapis JC, Macheix JJ (1985). Changes in grape seed phenols as affected by enzymatic and chemical oxidation in vitro. Journal of Food Science 50:1505-1506.
Patzke H, Schieber A (2018). Growth-inhibitory activity of phenolic compounds applied in an emulsifiable concentrate - ferulic acid as a natural pesticide against Botrytis cinerea. Food Research International 113:18-23.
Pezet R (1998). Purification and characterization of a 32 KDa laccase-like stilbene oxidase produced by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Fr. FEMS. Microbiology Letters 167:203-208.
Ribéreau-Gayon P, Glories Y, Maujean A, Dubourdieu D (2006). Handbook of Enology. Vol. 2. The Chemistry of Wine. Stabilization and Treatments (2nd Ed). John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester.
Richard AS, Eileen PR, David HY (2002). Novel fungitoxicity assays for inhibition of germination-associated adhesion of Botrytis cinerea and Puccinia recondita spores. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68:597-601.
Sesan TE, Enache E, Iacomi BM, Oprea M, Oancea F, Iacomi C (2015). Antifungal activity of some plant extract against Botrytis cinerea Pers. in the blackcurrant crop (Ribes nigrum L.). Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Hortorum Cultus 14:29-43.
Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods in Enzymology 299:152-178.
Sokovic MD, Vukojevic J, Marin PD, Brkic DD, Vajs V, Van Griensven LJLD (2009). Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities. Molecules 14:238-249.
Tao S, Zhang S, Tsao R, Charles MT, Yang R, Khanizadeh S (2010). In vitro antifungal activity and mode of action of selected polyphenolic antioxidants on Botrytis cinerea. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 43(16):1564-1578.
Teixeira A, Baenas N, Dominguez-Perles R, Barros A, Rosa E, Moreno DA, Garcia-Viguera C (2014). Natural bioactive compounds from winery by-products as health promoters: a review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 15:15638-15678.
Tripathi P, Dubey NK (2004). Exploitation of natural products as alternative strategy to control postharvest fungal rotting of fruits and vegetables. Postharvest Biology and Technology 32:235-245.
Tripathi P, Dubey NK, Shukla AK (2008). Use of some essential oils as post-harvest botanical fungicides in the management of grey mould of grapes caused by Botrytis cinerea. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology 24:39-46.
van Baarlen P, Legendre L, van Kan JAL (2007). Plant defence compounds against Botrytis infection. In: Elad Y, Williamson B, Tudzynski P, Delen N (Eds). Botrytis: Biology, Pathology and Control. Springer, Dordrecht pp 143-161.
Vitoratos A, Bilalis D, Karkanis A, Efthimiadou A (2013). Antifungal activity of plant essential oils against Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 41(1):86-92.
Wang C, Zhang J, Chen H, Fan Y, Shi Z (2010). Antifungal activity of eugenol against Botrytis cinerea. Tropical Plant Pathology 35 (3):137-143.
Xu D, Deng Y, Han T, Jiang L, Xi P, Wang Q, Jiang Z, Gao L (2018a). In vitro and in vivo effectiveness of phenolic compounds for the control of postharvest gray mold of table grapes. Postharvest Biology and Technology 139:106-114.
Xu D, Yu G, Xi P, Kong X, Wang Q, Gao L, Jiang Z (2018b). Synergistic effects of resveratrol and pyrimethanil against Botrytis cinerea on grape. Molecules 23(6):1455.
How to Cite
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.