Variation in Organic Acid, Sugar and Phenolic Compounds in Fruits of Historical Apple Cultivars
Knowledge about diversity of local apple cultivars is particularly important and helps to ensure that specific cultivars are available when and where farmers need them. The phenolic content, organic acids and sugars were investigated in the four historical apple cultivars (‘Aslik’, ‘Cebegirmez’, ‘Bey Elmasi’ and ‘Arapkizi’) grown in Van province, located in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. In the study, ellagic acid (63.034 mg per 100 ml) was found to be higher than other phenolic compounds and followed by vanilic acid, caffeic acid and routine, respectively. When examined the apple cultivars, it has been found that the ‘Bey Elmasi’ cultivar has the highest content of six phenolic acids (chlorogenic, ferulic, o-coumaric, p-coumaric, catechin and quercetin). The organic acid contents were as follows: malic>fumaric>succinic>citric>tartaric among cultivars. ‘Arapkizi’ cultivar possessed the highest value of four organic acids except of tartaric acid. It was determined that fructose was the major sugar for all apple cultivars. There was a positive correlation among gallic, ellagic acid and routine. Similarly, the positive correlation was observed among malic, fumaric and succinic acid. However the negative correlation between citric acid and all sugars was observed. As a result, ‘Bey Elmasi’ and ‘Arapkizi’ cultivars with higher phenolic content, ‘Arapkizi’ cultivar with higher organic acid content and ‘Aslik’ cultivar with higher sugar content comes to the foreground. Results indicated the importance of local apple germplasm to use of them for future apple breeding activities to increase inner quality.
Bevilacqua AE, Califano N (1989). Determination of organic acids in dairy products by high performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Food Science 54:1076-1079.
Boyer J, Liu RH (2004). Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits. Nutrition Journal 3:2-15.
Caliskan O, Bayazit S, Oktem M, Ergul A (2017). Evaluation of the genetic diversity of pomegranate accessions from Turkey using new microsatellite markers. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 41:142-153.
Canan I, Gundogdu M, Seday U, Oluk CA, Karasahin Z, Eroglu EC, Yazici E, Unlu M (2016). Determination of antioxidant, total phenolic, total carotenoid, lycopene, ascorbic acid, and sugar contents of Citrus species and mandarin hybrids. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 40:894-899.
Carbone K, Giannini B, Picchi V, Lo Scalzo R, Cecchini F (2011). Phenolic composition and free radical scavenging activity of different apple varieties in relation to the cultivar, tissue type and storage. Food Chemistry 127:493-500.
Chen CS, Zhang D, Wang YQ, Li PM, Ma FW (2012). Effects of fruit bagging on the contents of phenolic compounds in the peel and ?esh of ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Red Delicious’, and ‘Royal Gala’ apples. Scientia Horticulturae 142:68-73.
Coskun S, Askin MA (2016). Bazi yerli elma cesitlerinin pomolojik ve biyokimyasal özelliklerinin belirlenmesi. Journal of Suleyman Demirel University Agricultural Faculty 11:120-131.
Ercisli S, Tosun M, Karlidag H, Dzubur A, Hadziabulic S, Aliman Y (2012). Color and antioxidant characteristics of some fresh fig (Ficus carica L.) genotypes from Northeastern Turkey. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 67:271-276.
FAO (2017). Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC.
Feliciano RP, Antunes C, Ramos A, Serra AT, Figueira ME, Duarte CMM, Carvalho A, Bronze MR (2010). Characterization of traditional and exotic apple varieties from Portugal. Part 1 – Nutritional, phytochemical and sensory evaluation. Journal of Functional Foods 2:35-45.
Hecke K, Herbinger K, Veberic R, Trobec M, Toplak H, Stampar F, Keppel H, Grill D (2006). Sugar-, acid- and phenol contents in apple cultivars from organic and integrated fruit cultivation. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 60:1136-1140.
Jakobek L, Barron AR (2016). Ancient apple varieties from Croatia as a source of bioactive polyphenolic compounds. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 45:9-15.
Kamiloglu O, Ercisli S, Sengul M, Toplu C, Serce S (2009). Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of jujube (Zizyphus jujube Mill.) genotypes selected from Turkey. African Journal of Biotechnology 8:303-307.
Karadeniz F. Burdurlu HS, Koca N, Soyer Y (2005). Antioxidant activity of selected fruits and vegetables grown in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 29:297-303.
Karaman S, Tütem E, Sözgen Baskan K, Apak R (2010). Comparison of total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of some apple juices with combined HPLC-CUPRAC assay. Food Chemistry 120:1201-1209.
Kaya T, Balta F (2013). Apple selection in Van province. Agriculture Academy Journal 2:91-98.
Khanizadeh S, Tsao R, Rekika D, Yang R, DeEll J (2007). Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of selected apple genotypes. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment 5:61-66.
Khanizadeh S, Tsao R, Rekika D, Yang R, Charles MT, Rupasinghe HPV (2008). Polyphenol composition and total antioxidant capacity of selected apple genotypes for processing. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 21:396-401.
Lata B, Trampczynska A, Paczesna J (2009). Cultivar variation in apple peel and whole fruit phenolic composition. Scientia Horticulturae 121:176-181.
Melgarejo P, Salazar DM, Artes F (2000). Organic acids and sugars composition of harvested pomegranate fruits. European Food Research and Technology 211:185-190.
Michels KB, Giovannucci E, Chan AT, Singhania R, Fuchs CS, Willett WC (2006). Fruit and vegetable consumption and colorectal adenomas in nurses' health study. Cancer Research 66:3942-3953.
Mordogan N, Ergun S (2001). Relationships between organic acids and minerals in apple fruits. Ege University Agricultural Faculty Journal 38:111-118.
Özrenk K, Gündogdu M, Kaya T, Kan T (2011). Pomological classification of apples grown in Çatak and Tatvan. Yuzuncu Y?l University Agricultural Science Journal 21:57-63.
Package factoextra (2017). https://cran.r-project.org/web /packages /factoextra/factoextra.pdf.
Package ggplot 2 (2016). https://cran.r-project.org/web/packa ges /ggplot2/ggplot2.pdf.
Rodriguez-Delgado MA, Malovana S, Perez JP, Borges T, Garcia-Montelongo FJ (2001). Separation of phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography with absorbance and fluorimetric detection. Journal of Chromatography A 912:249-257.
SAS/STAT (2012). SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA.
Schieber A, Keller P, Carle R (2001). Determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids of apple and pear by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A 910:265-273.
Seçmen T, Onursal CE, Küçükyumuk C, Eren I, Güneyli A, Çalhan Ö (2015). The effect of deficit irrigation on storage performance and phenolic compounds in Breaburn apples. Fruit Science 2:16-21.
Sesso H, Gaziano JM, Liu S, Buring J (2003). Flavonoid intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77:1400-1408.
Tsao R, Yang R, Young JC, Zhu H (2003). Polyphenolic profiles in eight apple cultivars using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Journal of Agricultural and Food 51:6347-6353.
Tosun M, Ercisli S, Karlidag H, Sengul M (2009). Characterization of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) genotypes for their physicochemical properties. Journal of Food Science 74:C575-C579.
Wang X, Li C, Liang D, Zou Y, Li P, Ma F (2015). Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in red-fleshed apples. Journal of Functional Foods 18:1086-1094.
Wolfe K, Wu X, Liu RH (2003). Antioxidant activity of apple peels. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51:609-614.
Xu Y, Fan M, Ran J, Zhang T, Sun H, Dong M, Zhang Z, Zheng H (2016). Variation in phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in apple seeds of seven cultivars. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 23:379-388.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.