In vitro Propagation and Assessment of Genetic Relationships of Citrus Rootstocks Using ISSR Molecular Markers
AbstractThe behavior of six citrus rootstocks, Volkameriana, Citrumelo ‘Swingle’, Citrange ‘Carrizo’, Poncirus trifoliata ‘Serra’, Poncirus trifoliata ‘Rubidoux’ and Poncirus trifoliata ‘Flying Dragon’, in in vitro propagation was studied and compared for shoot proliferation and rooting. In addition, the genetic relationships among the rootstocks studied and other Citrus species, using the Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) molecular markers, were investigated. Nodal explants of three months old shoots were used in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with N6-benzyladenine (BA) for shoot proliferation and with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for rooting. The rootstock Volkameriana showed a statistically significant higher number of shoots (1.81), shoot length (15.14 mm) and number of leaves per explant (5.81), while all three Poncirus trifoliata rootstocks showed the lowest numbers. The number of roots and root length per explant were evaluated at the end of the rooting phase. The rootstock ‘Swingle’ showed a higher number of roots per explant (4.2) followed by ‘Flying Dragon’ (3.93) and ‘Carrizo’ (3.23) rootstocks. The rootstocks ‘Swingle’ (140.8 mm), Volkameriana (148 mm) and ‘Flying Dragon’ (131.12 mm) had significantly higher root length per explant compared to ‘Carrizo’ (31 mm) and ‘Rubidoux’ (34.5 mm). The ISSR molecular marker technique used in the present study grouped successfully the different species, varieties and rootstocks studied, revealing their genetic variability. The genetic variability observed among the rootstocks ranged between 0.29 (Poncirus trifoliata ‘Serra’ and Citrumelo ‘Swingle’) and 0.60 (Volkameriana and Citrumelo ‘Swingle’). The response of the rootstocks studied in in vitro propagation however is not related to their genetic affinity.
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