Assessment of Major Volatile and Phenolic Compounds from ‘Fetească Regală’ Wine Samples after Pre-fermentative Treatments using GC-MS Analysis and HPLC Analysis
‘Fetească regală’, the most cultivated white Romanian grape variety produces elegant wines with flowery notes and white fruits (especially apricot and citrus) hues, with a good acidity. Its volatile profile (esters, terpenes, higher alcohols) and phenolic compounds are of great interest to the wine industry, especially regarding the influence pre-fermentative stages have on their extraction, as most producers choose to follow this path. This study analyses how different pre-fermentative treatments (addition of bentonite, glutathione, tannins, clarifying enzymes) change the final profile of the product. The four variants are the most used prefermentative methods. A sensorial analysis of the obtained wines was performed and the obtained data was correlated with GC-MS and HPLC analysis. 25 volatile compounds were identified and quantified through headspace analysis, using different compound libraries, while through HPLC the presence and quantity of 14 major phenolic compounds was determined. Statistical analysis (One Way Anova) was applied to establish the influence of the pre-fermentative treatments on the quantitative presence of the analysed groups of compounds. The applied treatments bring changes to the final wines’ profile by increasing the quantity of some phenolic compounds (gallic, protocatechic, p-hydroxybenzoic, gentisic, vanillic and caffeic acid ). From a sensorial point of view, all prefermentative treatments bring a smoother feel of obtained wines, with lower acidities and less of a ‘green’ character. The final results can be used by industry by adding or removing from their technological process certain steps that have influence on aroma compounds of ‘Fetească regală’ wines.
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