Characterization of Old Apple Cultivars from Bosnia and Herzegovina by Means of Pomological and Biochemical Analysis
The assessment of quality of old apple varieties was made in order to preserve and use these germplasm in the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The characterization was done for ten old varieties of apples selected on the basis of good characteristics of sensory analysis. The following parameters were considered: fruit weight, fruit length and width, stalk length and width, fruit flesh firmness; soluble solids content and total dry matter content of the fruit juice; pH, titratable acidity (TA), vitamin C, total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant potential evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay. Statistical analysis was performed separately for sensory, pomological and biochemical characterization (in two consecutive years) by analysis of variance. Only traits such as weight, width and height of the fruit were the biggest in ‘Vinjugara’ which had a low content of titratable acidity whereby it could be singled out as an acceptable variety for consumers. ‘Đedovača’ had the highest content of phenols (1711.8 mg GAE/100 g of fruit weight), which is in complete relationship with good free radical scavenging activity (11.1 mg of fresh fruit/ml). ‘Kolačara’ and ‘Gospoinjača’ were distinguished as particularly interesting for good nutritional characteristics, primarily the content of phenols, flavonoids and free radical scavenging ability, but also for suitable storage characteristics, °Brix content and firmness. Due to favourable pomological and biochemical characteristics these varieties were recommended to be included in the breeding program that will result in the enrichment of germplasm of the apples from these areas.
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