Morphological Characteristics, Phenolic and Terpenoid Profiles in Garden Chrysanthemum Grown in Different Nutritional Conditions
Chrysanthemum indicum L. (Dendranthema indicum (L.) Des Moul) became useful as herbs and curatives in different parts of the world. In the current study, the chemical profile of outdoor cultivated Chrysanthemum indicum ‘Avalone Red’ was investigated for polyphenolic acid derivatives, flavonoids, alantolactone and ursolic acid using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Total phenolic content was determined through a classical method and semiquantitative analyses of alantolactone were performed through the HPLC method. Morphological and yield parameters and the chemical profile of plants were registered in two different nutritional statuses (local and enriched soil conditions). The results indicate that the studied cultivar is a potent source of phenolics and that the fertilisation increases the plant biosynthetic capacity for polyphenols (159.74 mg/100 g in leaves and 79.82 mg/100 g in flowers, in unfertilised plants, and 388.54 mg/100 g and 144.86 mg/100 g in leaves and flowers of fertilised plants, respectively, expressed as gallic acid equivalent value). The studied cultivar contains hyperoside (and other derivatives) and four main polyphenol carboxylic acids (including chlorogenic acid). Ursolic acid was not detected. The high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses confirmed the presence of alantolactone identified in TLC chromatogram. Moreover, the fertilised plant samples contain only traces of alantolactone compared to the unfertilised plants. Alantolactone is present in a small amount (less than 0.1 mg %) but its presence alerts to the potential allergenic effect of the plant. Besides their ornamental value, chrysanthemums can have a wide array of uses due to their high amounts of bioactive compounds.
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